Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis

, Volume 54, Issue 3, pp 149–163

ETS transcription factors and regulation of immunity

Authors

    • Department of Medicine, Division of RheumatologMedical University of South Carolina
  • Gary Gilkeson
    • Department of Medicine, Division of RheumatologMedical University of South Carolina
Review

DOI: 10.1007/s00005-006-0017-z

Cite this article as:
Gallant, S. & Gilkeson, G. Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp. (2006) 54: 149. doi:10.1007/s00005-006-0017-z

Abstract.

The ETS family is a diverse group of transcription factors that control the expressions of genes that participate in an array of cellular activities, ranging from mitosis to apoptosis. As a consequence of regulating these processes, most ETS factors are oncogenic. However, there is growing evidence that ETS factors are also essential to regulation of the immune system. Of the 29 recognized ETS factors, nine are known to regulate genes involved in immunity, including Ets1, Ets2, GABP, Fli1, Elf1, MEF, ESE1, PU.1, and SpiB. These ETS factors typically activate the transcription of genes associated with pathogen and tumor defense, but several also demonstrate ability to repress transcription. Ets1 and PU.1 appear to have the greatest impact on immunity, primarily through their control of immune cell development. Alterations of Fli1 and Elf1 expression are associated with autoimmunity, emphasizing the role of ETS factors as not only positive, but also negative regulators of immunity. This review summarizes the roles of ETS factors in development of the immune system, defense against pathogens and malignancies, and self-tolerance.

Keywords.

ETSEts1Ets2GABPFli1Elf1MEFESE1PU.1SpiBtranscription factorimmunity

Abbreviations.

BCR

B cell receptor

CIITA-PIII

class II transactivator promoter III

CR3

complement receptor 3

EBS

ETS-binding sites

Ig

immunoglobulin

IgH

Ig heavy chain

FcαR

IgA Fc receptor

FcɛRI

high-affinity IgE receptor

CSF1

colony-stimulating factor 1

G-CSF

granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

GM-CSF

granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

M-CSF

macrophage colony-stimulating factor

ICAM1

intercellular adhesion molecule 1

IFN-γ

interferon γ

IL-1

interleukin 1

IL-7R

IL-7 receptor

iNOS

inducible nitric oxide synthase

MHC

major histocompatibility complex

MPO

myeloperoxidase

NE

neutrophil elastase

NK

natural killer

DC

dendritic cell

pDC

plasmacytoid DC

PR3

proteinase 3

SLE

systemic lupus erythematosus

TCR

T cell receptor

Th1

type 1 T helper cell

TNF

tumor necrosis factor

Fli1

friend leukemia insertion 1

Elf1

Ets-like factor 1

TdT

terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase

Ese1

epithelium-specific ETS1

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Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel 2006