, Volume 114, Issue 4, pp 525-537

Developing a Photoautotrophic Micropropagation System for Woody Plants

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in vitro

including cotyledonary stage somatic embryos have the ability to grow photoautotrophically (without sugar in the culture medium), and that the low or negative net photosynthetic rate of plants in vitro is due not to poor photosynthetic ability, but to the low CO2 concentration in the air-tight culture vessel during the photoperiod. Furthermore, we have shown that the photoautotrophic growth of several woody plants in vitro can be significantly promoted by increasing the CO2 concentration and light intensity in the vessel, by decreasing the relative humidity in the vessel, and by using a fibrous or porous supporting material with high air porosity instead of gelling agents such as agar. In this paper, the advantages of photoautotrophic micropropagation in a conventional, small culture vessel with a microporous gas filter for enhancing natural ventilation and in a large culture vessel with a forced ventilation unit are described for woody plants such as acacia (Acacia mangium), coffee (Coffea arabusta), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldlensis), mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), neem (Azadirachta indica), paulownia (Paulownia fortunei), and pine (Pinus radiata).

Received 30 August 2001/ Accepted in revised form 27 September 2001