A Generalization of the Gallai–Roy Theorem
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- Li, H. Graphs Comb (2001) 17: 681. doi:10.1007/PL00007256
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A well-known and essential result due to Roy (, 1967) and independently to Gallai (, 1968) is that if D is a digraph with chromatic number χ(D), then D contains a directed path of at least χ(D) vertices. We generalize this result by showing that if ψ(D) is the minimum value of the number of the vertices in a longest directed path starting from a vertex that is connected to every vertex of D, then χ(D) ≤ψ(D). For graphs, we give a positive answer to the following question of Fajtlowicz: if G is a graph with chromatic number χ(G), then for any proper coloring of G of χ(G) colors and for any vertex v∈V(G), there is a path P starting at v which represents all χ(G) colors.