In this paper we give a variation of the gauge procedure which employs a scalar gauge field, B(x), in addition to the usual vector gauge field, Aμ(x). We study this variant of the usual gauge procedure in the context of a complex scalar, matter field ϕ(x) with a U(1) symmetry. We will focus most on the case when ϕ develops a vacuum expectation value via spontaneous symmetry breaking. We find that under these conditions the scalar gauge field mixes with the Goldstone boson that arises from the breaking of a global symmetry. Some other interesting features of this scalar gauge model are: (i) The new gauge procedure gives rise to terms which violate C and CP symmetries. This may have have applications in cosmology or for CP violation in particle physics; (ii) the existence of mass terms in the Lagrangian which respect the new extended gauge symmetry. Thus one can have gauge field mass terms even in the absence of the usual Higgs mechanism; (iii) the emergence of a sine-Gordon potential for the scalar gauge field; (iv) a natural, axion-like suppression of the interaction strength of the scalar gauge boson.
Gauge SymmetrySpontaneous Symmetry Breaking
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