American Journal of Respiratory Medicine

, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 55–74

Long-Acting β2-Agonists

Comparative Pharmacology and Clinical Outcomes
Review Article

DOI: 10.1007/BF03257163

Cite this article as:
van der Woude, H.J. & Aalbers, R. Am J Respir Med (2002) 1: 55. doi:10.1007/BF03257163


Salmeterol and formoterol are both long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists (β2-agonists). They both provide excellent bronchodilating and bronchoprotective effects in patients with asthma but their are some differences between these two long-acting β2-agonists in vitro and in vivo. Formoterol has a greater potency and intrinsic activity than salmeterol, which can become especially apparent at higher doses than that clinically recommended, and in contracted bronchi. Long-term use of long-acting β2-agonists can induce tolerance, which can be partially reversed with corticosteroids. Long-acting β2-agonists have some anti-inflammatory effects in vitro, but data in vivo are less convincing. Compared with doubling the dose of inhaled corticosteroids, the addition of inhaled long-acting β2-agonists to inhaled corticosteroids improves symptom control in patients with asthma and reduces both the exacerbation rate of asthma and hospital admission rate. No enhanced airway responsiveness or loss of perception of dyspnea has been observed with the use of inhaled long-acting β2-agonists. Monotherapy with long-acting β2-agonists is not recommended.

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pulmonary DiseasesMartini HospitalGroningen, 9700 RMThe Netherlands

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