Structuring numbers 1 to 20: Developing facile addition and subtraction
 David EllemorCollins,
 Robert (Bob) Wright
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The Numeracy Intervention Research Project (NIRP) aims to develop assessment and instructional tools for use with lowattaining 3rd and 4thgraders. The NIRP approach to instruction in addition and subtraction in the range 1 to 20 is described. The approach is based on a notion of structuring numbers, which draws on the work of Freudenthal and the Realistic Mathematics Education program. NIRP involved 25 teachers and 300 students, 200 of whom participated in an intervention program of approximately thirty 25minute lessons over 10 weeks. Data is drawn from case studies of two intervention students who made significant progress toward facile addition and subtraction. Pre and postassessment interviews and five lesson episodes are described, and data drawn from the activity of the students during the episodes are analysed. The discussion develops a detailed account of the progression of students’ learning of structuring numbers, and how this can result in significant levelraising of students’ arithmetical knowledge as it becomes more formalised and less contextdependent.
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 Title
 Structuring numbers 1 to 20: Developing facile addition and subtraction
 Journal

Mathematics Education Research Journal
Volume 21, Issue 2 , pp 5075
 Cover Date
 20090701
 DOI
 10.1007/BF03217545
 Print ISSN
 10332170
 Online ISSN
 2211050X
 Publisher
 Springer Netherlands
 Additional Links
 Topics
 Authors

 David EllemorCollins ^{(1)}
 Robert (Bob) Wright ^{(1)}
 Author Affiliations

 1. Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia