Acta Theriologica

, Volume 50, Issue 4, pp 521–527

Winter diets of wolfCanis lupus and lynxLynx lynx in Estonia and Latvia


  • Harri Valdmann
    • Department of Integrative ZoologyUniversity of Tartu
  • Zanete Andersone-Lilley
    • State Forestry Research Institute “Silava”
  • Ott Koppa
    • Department of Integrative ZoologyUniversity of Tartu
  • Janis Ozolins
    • State Forest Service
  • Guna Bagrade
    • Latvian Museum of Natural History

DOI: 10.1007/BF03192645

Cite this article as:
Valdmann, H., Andersone-Lilley, Z., Koppa, O. et al. Acta Theriol (2005) 50: 521. doi:10.1007/BF03192645


Winter diets of wolfCanis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 and lynxLynx lynx Linnaeus, 1758 in Latvia and Estonia were investigated in 1997–2000 based on stomach contents of hunted animals and scats. Ungulates appeared to be the staple food for both predators. Lynx diet to a high extent consisted of cervids (Estonia 52% frequency of prey, Latvia 88%), roe deer dominating. Mountain hareLepus timidus made up from 9% (Latvia) to 31% (Estonia) of the lynx diet, and red foxVulpes vulpes 7% in Estonian sample. Wolf diet was more diverse; besides cervids (44% in Latvia, 63% in Estonia) it included wild boar Sus scrofa (32% in Latvia, 17% in Estonia), carrion, small rodents, and other food items. Proportion of empty stomachs was high both in wolves (37%) and lynxes (35%) in Latvia. Range of stomach content weights varied from zero to more than 4 kg in wolves and almost 1.5 kg in lynx. Pianka’s indices of food niche overlapped significantly between species and countries (0.85–0.99).

Key words

Canis lupusLynx lynxstomach contentLatviaEstoniacervidswild boar

Copyright information

© Mammal Research Institute, Bialowieza, Poland 2005