Genes & Genomics

, Volume 31, Issue 4, pp 305-314

First online:

Prediction of tandem repeat polymorphisms in the coding region of dog genome

  • Kyung-Won HongAffiliated withThe United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Gifu UniversityDepartment of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University
  • , Yumi NakaeAffiliated withFaculty of Applied Biological Sciences, Gifu University
  • , Tae-Hyung KimAffiliated withKorean Bioinformation Center
  • , Suan ChoAffiliated withKorean Bioinformation Center
  • , Shin’ichi ItoAffiliated withFaculty of Applied Biological Sciences, Gifu University
  • , Miho Inoue-MurayamaAffiliated withFaculty of Applied Biological Sciences, Gifu UniversityWildlife Research Center of Kyoto University Email author 

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After the dog genome was sequenced, an increasing number of studies involving genetic research of dogs have been conducted to understand gene functions and mammalian evolution. To study the genetic diversity in dogs and other mammals, genetic markers linked to function and conserved in wide lineages are necessary. Thus far, few polymorphic markers have been used in dogs. In this study, we surveyed the entire dog genome and predicted a total of 109 tandem repeats (TRs) located on the protein coding region that may be polymorphic by our prediction model. We selected 10 TRs that may be related to neurophysiology and neural developments, and tested them in 167 individuals of 8 dog breeds: 5 European dog breeds (Beagle, Golden Retriever, Labrador Retriever, German Shepherd, and Toy Poodle) and 3 Japanese dog breeds (Japanese Spitz, Shiba, and Shikoku). Among the tested TRs, nine were polymorphic indicating that 90% of the TRs were successfully predicted to be polymorphic. PCR fragments of the TRs were amplified from dog brain cDNA, showing their expression in the dog brain. Our results provide abundant opportunities for the study of phenotypic variations in dogs, and our prediction method for variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) can be applied to any other animal genome sequences for the survey of functional and polymorphic markers.

Key words

Brain Breed coding region dog VNTR