Abdullah, A. S. 1998. Mammy-ism: A Diagnosis of Psychological Misorientation for Women of African Descent. Journal of Black Psychology
Albarran, A. B. & Umphrey, D. 1993. An Examination of television motivations and program preferences by Hispanics, Blacks, and Whites, Journal of Broadcasting and Electric Media 37 (1): 95–103.
Ali, Shahrazad. 1990. The Black Woman’s Guide to Understanding the Black Man. Philadelphia, PA: Civilized Publications.
Alvarez, G. 2000. Mama Knows Best. Vibe 10 (June): 126.
Amber, J. 2001. The Pick Up. Essence 31 (12): 147–148.
Anderson, E. 1995. Sex Codes and Family Life among Poor Inner City Youth. In Ronald L. Taylor (Ed.) African American Youth: Their Social and Economic Status in the United States. (179–202). Westport, CT: Praeger.
Baer, H. & Jones, Y. 1992. Economic Survival, Health Maintenance and Religious Identity in the South. In Hans Baer and Yvonne Jones (Eds.) African Americans in the South: Issues of Race, Class, and Gender. (pp. 1–13) Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.
Baker, S. 2001. Buff Cuts: Rappers make their Foray into the Skin-Flick trade. Vibe, July, 50.
Baker, H. A. 1992. You Cain’t Trus’ It: Experts Witnessing in the Case of Rap. In G. Dent (Ed.). Black Popular Culture. (pp. 128–132). Seattle, WA: Bay Press.
Bales, D. W., Stephens, D. P. & Fogarty, K. 2002. Assessment of Pregnant and Parenting teen’s needs in their communities. Manuscript in preparation.
Beale, F. 1970. Double Jeopardy: To Be African American and Female. In Toni Cade (ed.) The African American Woman: An Anthology. (pp. 90–100), New York, NY: New American Library.
Binion, V. 1990. Psychosocial androgyny: A Black female perspective. Sex Roles
Blassingame, J. W. 1979. The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Antebellum South. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Boatright, S. R. and Bachtel, D. C. 1999. The Georgia County Guide. Athens, Georgia: Center for Agribusiness and Economic Development.
Bond, P. 1970. Is the Black Male Castrated? In T. Cade (Ed.) The Black Woman: An Anthology, New York, NY: Mentor Books.
Botta, R. A. 2000. The Mirror of Television: A Comparison of Black and White adolescents; body image. Journal of Communication
50 (3): 144–162.CrossRef
Brooks-Gunn, J., & Raikoff, R. 1997. Sexuality and Development Transitions During Adolescents. In J. Schulenburg, J. L. Maggs, & K. Hurrelmann (Eds.) Health Risks and Developmental Transitions during Adolescence. Boston, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Brown, J. D. 2000. Adolescents’ Sexual Diets. Journal of Adolescent Health
Brown Douglas, K. 1999. Sexuality and the Black Church: A Womanist Perspective. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Publishing.
Brown, S. & McNair, L. 1995. Black Women’s Sexual Sense of Self: Implications for AIDS Prevention. The Womanist 1 (2): 1–5.
Boykin, K. 1996. One more River to Cross: Black and Gay in America. New York, NY: Doubleday and Company.
Burford, M. & Farley, C. J. 1999. Foxy’s Dilemma: Dignity or Dollars? Essence 30 (4): 72–138.
Burt-Murray, A. 2000. And the Winner is: The First Annual Essence Beauty Awards. Essence 31 (1): 35–48.
Campbell, A. 1991. Girls in the Gang, Second Edition, Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, Inc.
Cash, T. F., & Pruzinsky, T. (Eds.) 1990. Body images: Development, deviance, and change. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Centers for Disease Control. 2000. 2000 Adolescent Health Chartbook. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Centers for Disease Control. 1998. National and State-Specific Pregnancy Rates Among Adolescents—United States, 1995–1997. Behavioral Epidemiology and Demographic Research Br and Statistics and Computer Resources Bureau, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC.
Centers for Disease Control. 1999. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Atlanta, GA.
Chappell, K. 2001. Eve & Missy Elliott: Taking Rap to a new level. Ebony 36 (10): 68–74.
Chambers, G. and Morgan, J. 1992. Dropping Knowledge: A Rap Roundtable. Essence 23 (5): 83–120.
Chuck D. 2001. Essay: The Sound of our young world. Time Magazine 153 (5): 66.
Clarke, C. 1981. Lesbianism: an act of resistance. In C. Moraga and G. Anzaldwa (Eds.) This Bridge called my Back. New York, NY: Kitchen Table Press.
Cleage, P. 1993. Fatal Floozies. Deals with the Devil and other reasons to Riot. New York: Ballantine Books.
— 1996. Rethinking the Pleasure Principle. Health Quest 16: 64.
Coker, C. H. 1999. Total Disclosure. Vibe 10 (June): 136–138.
Comstock, G. & Scharrer, E. 1999. Television: What’s on, Who’s watching and What it means. New York, NY: Academic Press.
Connor, M. K. 1995. What is Cool? New York, NY: Crown Publishers.
Cullari, S., & Mikus, R. 1990. Correlates of adolescent sexual behavior. Psychological Reports 66: 1179–1184.
Curtin, S. C., & Martin, J. A. 2000. Births: preliminary data for 1999. National Vital Statistics Reports 2000 48 (14): 1–24.
Davis, A. Y. 1983. Women, Race, and Class. New York, NY: Random House.
De Genova, N. 1995. Check your head: The cultural politics of Rap music. Transition 3 (3): 121–149.
Diamond, J. 2001. A Tale of Two Reputations. Natural History 110 (1): 20–25.
Dobie, K. 2001. Love’s Labor Lost, Vibe (September): 194–202.
Farley, C. J. 1999. Music: Hip Hop Nation. Time Magazine 153 (5): 54–64.
Fausto-Sterling, A. 1995. Gender, Race, and Nation: The comparative anatomy of “Hottentot” women in Europe, 1815–1817. In Jennifer Terry and Jacqueline Urla (Eds.) Deviant Bodies: Critical Perspectives on difference in Science and Popular culture. (pp. 19–46). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Feingold, A. 1990. Gender difference in the effects of physical attractiveness on romantic attraction: A comparison across five research paradigms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Firestone, D. 2001. Child Abuse at a Church Creates a Stir in Atlanta. The New York Times, March 30, 2001.
Frith, S. 1996. Performing Rites: On the Value of Popular Music. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Fullilove, M. T., Fullilove, R. E., Hayes, K., & Gross S. 1993. Black women and AIDS Prevention: a View towards understanding the Gender Rules. In M. Berer (ed.), Women and HIV/AIDS: An International Resource Book (pp. 212–217) London, England: Pandora.
Garcia, L., & Carrigan, D. (1998). Individual and gender differences in sexual self-perceptions. The Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality 10: 50–70.
Giddings, P. 1984. Where and When I enter: The Impact of Black Women on Race and Sex in America. New York, NY: Bantam Books
— 1995. The Last Taboo. In B. Guy-Sheftall (Ed.) Words of Fire: An Anthology of African American Feminist Thought. New York, NY: New York Press.
Gillespie, M. A. 1993. Mirror, Mirror. Essence (January): 73–97.
Gomez, J. L., & Smith, B. 1994. Taking the Home out of Homophobia: Black Lesbian Health. In E. C. White (Ed.) The Black Women’s Health Book: Speaking for Ourselves. Seattle, WA: Seal Press.
Good, K. & Marriott, R. 1997. Lets’ Talk about Sex. Vibe (June/July): 68–71.
Gould, S. J. 1985. The Hottentot Venus. In S. J. Gould (Ed.) The Flamingo’s Smile: Reflections in Natural History. (pp. 291–305) New York: Norton.
Grant, J. 1992. Black Women and Church. In G. Hull, P. Bell Scott and B. Smith (Eds.) New York, NY: The Feminist Press.
Gutierrez, L. 1990. Working with women of color: An empowerment perspective. Social Work 35 (2): 149–153.
Haley, A. 1976. Roots: The Saga of an American Family. New York, NY: Dell Publishing.
Haley, A. & Stevens, D. 1993. Queen: The Story of an American Family. New York, NY: William Morrow and Company.
hampton, d. 1994. Confessions of a Hip-Hop Critic. Essence Magazine, August.
— 2000. Flick: Girls Interrupted. Vibe (June/July): 169–170.
— 2001. Heroine Chic. Vibe (July): 38–39.
Hazel-Ford, T. D., Tess, D., & Sarvela, P. D. 1992. Sources of rural pregnant adolescent drug abuse information. Wellness Perspectives 9 (1): 53–59.
Heaton, J.A., & Wilson, N.L. 1995. Tuning in Trouble: Talk TV’s destructive impact on mental health. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Henderson, E. L. 1996. Black Nationalism and Rap Music. Journal of Black Studies
26 (3): 308–340.CrossRef
Hernandez-Ramdwar, C. 1994. Ms. Edge Innate. In C. Camper (Ed.) Miscegenation Blues: Voices of Mixed Race Women. (pp. 2–7) Toronto, ON: Sister Vision Press.
Higginbotham, E., & Weber, L. 1995. Moving Up with Kin and Community: Upward Social Mobility for Black and White Women. In M. L. Anderson and P. Hill Collins (Eds.) Race, Class, and Gender: An Anthology, Second Edition. (pp. 134–147). New York, NY: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Hill Collins, P. 2000. Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness and the Politics of Empowerment, Second Edition. New York, NY: Routledge.
Hooks, b. 1992. Black Looks: Race and Representations. Toronto, ON: Between the Lines Press.
— 1993. Sisters of the Yam: Black women and self-recovery. Toronto, ON.: Between the Lines Press.
— 1995. Killing Rage; Ending Racism. New York, NY: Owl Books.
Hoover, T. 1993. Black Women and the Churches: Triple Jeopardy. In J. H. Cone & G. S. Wilmore (Eds.), Black Theology: A Documentary History Volume One, 1966–1979 (pp. 293–303). Mary Knoll, NY: Orbis Books.
Hunt, G., & Joe-Laidler, K. 2001. Situations of violence in the lives of girl gang members. Health Care for Women International
Igra, V., & Irwin, C. 1997. Theories of Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior. In J. Schulenberg, J. Maggs & K. Hurrelman (Eds.) Health Risk and Developmental Transitions During Adolescence. (pp. 35–51) New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Jah, Y., & Shah’Keyah. 1997. Uprising: Crips and Bloods tell the story of America’s youth in the crossfire. New York, NY: Touchstone.
Jackson, S. 1996. The Social Construction of Female Sexuality. In S. Jackson & Sue Scott (Eds.), Feminism and Sexuality: A Reader (pp. 62–73). New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Jones, L. 1994. Bulletproof Diva: Tales of Race, Sex and Hair New York, NY: Anchor Books.
— 1995. Sister Knowledge. Essence 26 (1): 187–258.
Jordan, J. 1993. Technical Difficulties: Selected Political Essays. London, UK: Virago Press.
Judd, A. & Young Miller, J. 2001. Inside the House of Prayer. Atlanta Journal-Constitution, Apr. 22, 2001
Kim, S. 2001. Style Council. Vibe (September): 206–210.
Krieger, N., & Fee. 1996. Man-Made Medicine and Women’s Health: The Biopolitics of Sex/Gender and Race/Ethnicity. In K. L. Moss (Ed.) Man-Made Medicine: Women’s Health, Public policy and reform. (pp. 15–36) Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Krupka, L. R., & Verner, A. M. 1987. Drug Knowledge: Young adult consumer at risk. Journal of Drug Education 17: 129–147.
Landolt, M. A., Lalumiere, M. L., & Quinsey, V. L. 1995. Sex differences in intra-sex variations in human mating tactics: An evolutionary approach. Etiology and Sociobiology
Lerner, G. (Ed.). 1972. Black Women in White America: A Documentary History. Toronto, ON: Vintage books.
Lewis, D. 1995. African American Women at Risk: Notes on the Sociocultural Context of HIV Infection. In B. Schneider & N. Stoller (Eds.), Women Resisting AIDS: Feminist Strategies of Empowerment. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Lindfors, B. 1983. The Hottentot Venus and other African Attractions in Nineteenth Century England. Australasian Drama Studies 1: 83–104.
Lindsey, K. 1970. Poen. In T. Cade (Ed.) The Black Woman: An Anthology. New York, NY: Mentor Books.
Longmore, M. A. 1998. Symbolic Interactionism and the study of sexuality. Journal of Sex Research 35 (1): 44–58.
Lorde, A. 1984. Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches by Audre Lorde. Freedom, CA: Thee Crossing Press.
Luker, K. 1996. Dubious Conceptions: The Politics of teenage pregnancy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Lundy, D.W., Tan, J., & Cunningham, M. R. 1998. Heterosexual romantic preferences: The importance of humor and physical attractiveness for different types of relationships. Personal Relationships
5 (3): 311–325.CrossRef
Major, C. (Ed.). 1994. Juba to Jive: A Dictionary of African-American slang. New York, NY: Penguin Books.
Makkar, J. K., & Strube, M. J. 1995. Black women’s self-perceptions of attractiveness following exposure to White versus Black beauty standards: Moderating role of racial identity and self-esteem. Journal of Applied Social Psychology
25 (17): 1547–1566.CrossRef
Marriott, R. 2000. Blowin’ Up. Vibe (June/July): 125–132.
McCall, N. 1994. Makes me Wanna Holler: A young Black man in America. New York, NY: Vintage Books.
— 1997. Gangstas, Guns, and Shoot ‘Em Ups. What’s Going on: Personal Essays. New York, NY: Random House, (pp. 45–77).
Mekler, L. 1998. U.S. Calls on Blacks in AIDS Fight. Associated Press, July 28.
Mitchell, G. 1999. Missy Elliott’s on top of her World. Billboard 111 (25): 11.
Morales, R. 1997. Sexy MFs: Inside the minds of America’s most chocalicious porn stars. Vibe, June/July: 74–79.
Morrison, T. 1970. The Bluest Eye. New York, NY: Washington Square Press.
Morton, P. 1991. Disfigured Images: The Historical Assault on Afro-American Women New York, NY: Praeger.
Moynihan, D. P. 1967. The Negro Family: The Case for National Action. In L. Rainwater & W. L. Yancey (Eds.) The Moynihan Report and the Politics of Controversy. (pp. 39–124). Cambridge, MA: The M.I.T. Press.
Murray, P. 1978. Black Theology and Feminist Theology: A Comparative View. In J. H. Cone & G. S. Wilmore (Eds.) Black Theology, A Documentary History Volume One (pp. 166–1979). Maryknoll, NY: Orbis.
McBride Murry, V. 1995. Black Female Sexuality: Within Group Differences. The Womanist 1, 2: 5–7.
Fausto-Sterling, A. 1997. The Impact of Sexual Activity and Fertility Timing on African American High School Graduates’ Later Life Experiences. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services 383–392.
Naylor, G. 1992. Bailey’s Cafe. New York, NY: Vintage Books.
— 1998. The Men of Brewster Place. New York, NY: Hyperion Press.
Niels Heller, P. 1995. Bad Intentions: The Mike Tyson Story. New York, NY: Da Capo Press.
O’Connor, D. 2001. Iron Mike: A Mike Tyson Reader. New York, NY: Thunder’s Mouth Press.
Pharr, S. & Raymond, S. G. 1997. Homophobia: A Weapon of Sexism. New York, NY: Chardon Press.
Public Health Service. 1998. Progress Review: Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services.
Ransby, B., & Matthews, T. 1995. Black Popular Culture and the Transcendence of Patriarchal Illusions. In B. Guy-Sheftall (Ed.) Words of Fire: An Anthology of African American Feminist Thought. (pp. 526–536). New York, NY: The New Press.
Rainwater, L. & Yancey, W. 1967. The Moynihan Report and the Politics of Controversy. Cambridge, MA: The M.I.T. Press.
Rich, A. 1978. Blood, Bread and Poetry. London, UK: Virago.
Ro, R. 1996. Gangsta: Merchandising the rhymes of Violence. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.
Roberts, D. 2000. Media and Youth: Access, Exposure, and Privatization. Journal of Adolescent Health
27 (2): 8–14.CrossRef
Roberts, R. 1996. Ladies First: Women in Music Videos. Jackson, MS: University of Mississippi Press.
Roberts, T. & Ulen, E. N. 2000. Sisters Spin Talk on Hip Hop: Can the Music be saved? Ms. Magazine 10 (2): 69–74.
Robotham, R. (1998). Gang Girl. Essence 29 (4): 74–81.
Rose, T. 1992. Black Texts/Black Contexts. In G. Dent (Ed.). Black Popular Culture. (pp. 132–128). Seattle, WA: Bay Press.
Rubio, P. 1993. Crossover Drams: The ‘Exceptional White’ in Popular Culture. Race Traitor, 2: 68–80.
Sanchez Jankowski, M. 1991. Islands in the Street: Gangs and American Urban society. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Scales-Trent, J. 1993. Law as an Instrument of Oppression and the Culture of Resistance. In D. Clark Hine (Ed.) Black women in America: A Historical Encyclopedia. (pp. 702–705). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Schooler, D. & Wieling, E. 2000. Effects of Heterosexual African American Male’s perception of Ideal female body image on their partners. Unpublished manuscript, Texas Tech University.
Scruggs, A. O. E. 2001. Media and our mind set. Essence 31 (12): 94.
Shange, N. 1977. For colored girls who have, considered suicide when the Rainbow isn’t enuf. New York, NY: Bantam Books.
Sklar, H. 1995. The Upperclass and Mothers in the Hood. In Margaret L. Anderson and Patricia Hill Collins (Eds.) Race, Class, and Gender: An Anthology, Second Edition. (pp. 123–133) New York, NY: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Smith, D. 1999. She got Game: Foxy Brown is the Illest. Vibe (June): 113–116.
Smitherman, G. 1977. Talkin’ and Testifyin’: The Language of Black America. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press.
—. 1997. The Chain Remain the same. Journal of Black Studies 28 (1): 3–26.
Sosnowitz, B. 1995. AIDS Prevention, Minority Women and Gender Assertiveness. In B. Schneider & N. Stoller (Eds.), Women Resisting AIDS: Feminist Strategies of Empowerment. (pp. 139–161). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Sobal, J., Rausechenback, B.S., & Frongillo, E.A. 1995. Obesity and marital quality: Analysis of weight, martial unhappiness, and marital problems in a U.S. national sample. Journal of Family Issues
16 (6): 746–464.CrossRef
Solinger, R. 1992. Wake Up Little Susie: Single Pregnancy and Race before Roe v. Wade. New York, NY: Routledge.
Souljah, Sister. 1994. No Disrespect. New York, NY: Vintage Books.
Staples, R. 1994. The Black Family: Essays and Studies. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.
Stephens, D. P., Willert, A., and Murry, V. McBride. 2002. Contextualizing Sexual Risk Taking of African American Girls: An Examination of Family Relationship Quality and Adolescent Characteristics. Manuscript in progress.
Sterk-Elifson, C. 1994. Sexuality among African American women. Sexuality across the Life Course (pp. 99–126). Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Thompson, S. 1995. Going all the way: Teenage girls’ tales of sex, romance, and pregnancy. New York, NY: Hill and Wang.
Thompson, E., Bachrach, C., Kaye, K., & Ventura, S. 1997. Male fertility in relation to union formation and dissolution. Report prepared for the Working Group on Male Fertility and Family Formation.
Venable, M. 2001. A Question of Identity. Vibe (July): 98–106.
Ventura S. J., Curtin, S. C., and Mathews, T. J. 2000. Variations in teenage birth rates, 1991–98: national and state trends. National Vital Statistics Reports 2000 48 (6): 1–12.
Tattersall, I. 2001. A hundred years of missing links. Natural History 109 (10): 62–66.
Ventura S. J. 1999 Births: final data for 1997. National Vital Statistics Reports, 1999 47 (18): 1–96.
Villarosa, L. 1994. Body and Soul: The African American Women’s Guide to Physical Health and Emotional Well-Being. New York, NY: Harper Perennial.
— 2002. Our girls in crisis: The war on girls. Essence 23 (9): 92–121.
Wahl, G. 1999. I fought the Law, and the cold won: Hip Hop in mainstream. College Literature 26 (1): 98–113.
Wallace, M. 1978. Black Macho and the Myth of the Superwoman. New York, NY: The Dial Press.
Washington, P. 1995. Positive Sexuality; Does it begin at home. The Womanist 1 (2): 5–7.
Weinberg, M. & Williams, C. 1988. Black Sexuality:, A Test of Two Theories. The Journal of Sex Research
25 (2): 197–218.CrossRef
Wheeler, S. C. & Petty, R. E. 2001. The effects of stereotype activation on Behavior: A review of possible mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin
Wheeler, S. C., Jarvis, W. B. G., & Petty, R. E. 2001. Think unto others: The self-destructive impact of negative stereotypes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Williams, S. A. 1992. Two Words on Music. In Gina Dent (Ed.) Black Popular Culture. (pp. 164–172). Seattle, WA: Bay Press.
Windham, Y. 1995. Good Girls do not Do It. Vital Signs 11 (1): 30–31
Wingood, G., DiClemente, R., Harrington, K., Davies, S., Hook, E. W., & Oh, K. M. 2001. Exposure to X-Rated movies and adolescent’s sexual and contraceptive related attitudes and behaviors. Pediatrics
Wolf, N. 1997. Promiscuities: The Secret Struggle for Womanhood. New York, NY: Random House.
Woodarski, J. S., Smokowski, P. R., & Feit, M. D. 1996. Adolescent Preventive Health: A Cost-Beneficial Social and Life Group Paradigm. In J. S. Woodarski, M. D. & J. R. Ferrari (Eds.), Adolescent Health Care: Program Designs and Services (pp. 1–40). New York, NY: Haworth Press, Inc.
Wyatt, G. 1991. Examining Ethnicity Verses Race in AIDS Related Research. Social Science Medicine
33 (1): 37–45.CrossRef
— 1997. Stolen Women: Reclaiming our Sexuality, Taking back our lives. New York, NY: Wiley Books.
Zillmann, D. 2000. Influence of Unrestrained access to Erotica on Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ dispositions toward Sexuality. Journal of Adolescent Health