, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 171-180

Ilex paraguariensis has antioxidant potential and attenuates haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia and memory dysfunction in rats

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Abstract

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a syndrome associated with administration of antipsychotics drugs and may be a consequence of a free radical increase.Ilex paraguariensis (IP), rich in polyphenols, is used to prepare a tea-like beverage, the “mate”, and has been investigated for its antioxidant action. Here, we examined the aqueous extract ofIP onin vitro TBARS production andin vivo study, using two behavioral models,i.e., haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia (evaluated measuring vacuous chewing movements, VCMs) and memory dysfunction, evaluated in a watermaze task. Invitro, we examine different concentrations ofIP against the basal, Fe(II) and sodium nitruproside-induced TBARS production in rat brain homogenate.IP extract was able to prevent the basal formation of TBARS (IC50=6.6 mg/ml) and TBARS induced by SNP (IC50=3.7 mg/ml) and Fe(II) (IC50=4.8 mg/ml). Haloperidol administration (12 mg/kg/week, im, x4 weeks) increased VCMs (p<0.001). Rats treated with mate (50 g/l,ad libitum, 60 days) did not exhibit the increase in VCMs observed in control rats treated with haloperidol (p<0.001). In the water maze task, haloperidol treated animals displayed an impairment in memory acquisition (p<0.05) compared to rats treated with vehicle. The “mate” prevented the effects of haloperidol in this behavioral paradigm. Our results indicate thatIP exhibits an antioxidant role probably related to the presence of polyphenols. The benefit ofIP is possibly related to an indirect modulation of oxidative stress.