Part III Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Neuronal Cell Death

Neurotoxicity Research

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 119-134

First online:

Molecular and cellular mechanisms of neuronal cell death in HIV dementia

  • W. LiAffiliated withRT Johnson Division of Neuroimmunology and Neurological Infection, Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University
  • , D. GaleyAffiliated withRT Johnson Division of Neuroimmunology and Neurological Infection, Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University
  • , Mark P. MattsonAffiliated withLaboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research ProgramDepartment of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
  • , Avindra NathAffiliated withRT Johnson Division of Neuroimmunology and Neurological Infection, Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins UniversityDepartment of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Email author 

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access

Abstract

The deaths of neurons, astrocytes and endothelial cells have been described in patients with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) dementia. HIV-1 does not infect neurons; instead, neurotoxic substances shed by infected glia and macrophages can induce a form of programmed cell death called apoptosis in neurons. These neurotoxins include the HIV-1 proteins Tat and gp120, as well as proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, excitotoxins and proteases. In this article we review the evidence for apoptosis of various cell types within the brain of HIV-infected patients, and describein vitro andin vivo experimental studies that have elucidated the mechanisms by which HIV causes apoptosis of brain cells.

Keywords

HIV Dementia Astrocytes Endothelial cells apoptosis Tat gp120 cytokines chemokines excitotoxins proteases