Journal of Population Research

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 1–24

Policy responses to low fertility and its consequences: A global survey


DOI: 10.1007/BF03031966

Cite this article as:
Calwell, J.C., Caldwell, P. & McDonald, P. Journal of Population Research (2002) 19: 1. doi:10.1007/BF03031966


Fertility at or below replacement level now characterizes 64 countries with populations totalling 44 per cent of that of the world. Many of these countries have total fertility rates below 1.5 and some have recorded below-replacement fertility for decades. It appears likely that some countries will eventually adopt policies aimed at raising fertility. Accordingly, the paper examines the effect of past policies of this type, and briefly looks to the future.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • John C. Calwell
    • 1
  • Pat Caldwell
    • 1
  • Peter McDonald
    • 1
  1. 1.Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population HealthThe Australian National UniversityCanberraAustralia