, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 238-244

Formation, characterization and release of non-extractable residues of [14C] -labeled organic xenobiotics in soils

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The amount of non-extractable residues (NER) of organic xenobiotics in the soil can considerably exceed the amount of extractable residues which are accessible to normal residue analysis. The NER therefore present a burden to the soil, the toxicological and ecotoxicological potential of which is largely unknown. For the characterization of bound residues and their binding type, special solubilization methods such as supercritical fluid extraction are applied and experiments with radiolabeled model polymers are performed. Mineralization experiments with [14C] labeled xenobiotics in natural soil show that a total degradation is still also possible in the environment when in a bound form. Ecotoxicological effects of non-extractable residues may be recorded when their concentration is high, when the parent compound exhibits a high ecotoxicity and the applied detection method is sufficiently sensitive.