The product of the Wilms tumor gene, WT1, is a universal tumor antigen. We performed WT1 peptide-based immunotherapy for a patient with multiple myeloma (MM). This patient was a 57-year-old woman with chemotherapy-resistant MM (Bence Jones к type). The patient received weekly intradermal injections of an HLA-A*2402-restricted 9-mer WT1 peptide emulsified with Montanide ISA 51 adjuvant for 12 weeks and achieved a minimal response according to European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation criteria without experiencing systemic adverse effects. The proportion of myeloma cells in the bone marrow (BM) decreased from 85% to 25%, and the amount of M protein in the urine decreased from 3.6 to 0.6 g/day after WT1 vaccination. Furthermore, a bone scintigram showed an improvement after the vaccination. As for immunologic parameters, the frequency of WT1 tetramer-positive cells among CD8+ T-cells, which was higher than in healthy donors, temporarily decreased at weeks 4 and 8 but increased at week 12, whereas the frequency of WT1 peptide-responding CD107a/b+ cells among WT1 tetramer-positive T-cells increased from 27.0% to 38.6% after the vaccination. After WT1 vaccination, the frequency of CXCR4+ cells among WT1 tetramer-positive T-cells increased in the BM, where stromal cells expressed the ligand for CXCR4, stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), but decreased in the peripheral blood (PB), implying that WT1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes had migrated from the PB to the BM, a tumor site.
Wilms tumor gene WT1 Multiple myeloma Immunotherapy Cancer vaccine