Suppression of protein kinase c and nuclear oncogene expression as possible action mechanisms of cancer chemoprevention by curcumin
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- Lin, JK. Arch Pharm Res (2004) 27: 683. doi:10.1007/BF02980135
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Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a major naturally-occurring polyphenol of Curcuma species, which is commonly used as a yellow coloring and flavoring agent in foods. Curcumin has shown anti-carcinogenic activity in animal models. Curcumin possesses anti-inflammatory activity and is a potent inhibitor of reactive oxygen-generating enzymes such as lipoxygenase/ cyclooxygenase, xanthine dehydrogenase /oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase; and an effective inducer of heme oxygenase-1. Curcumin is also a potent inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), EGF(Epidermal growth factor)-receptor tyrosine kinase and IkB kinase. Subsequently, curcumin inhibits the activation of NF(nucleor factor)KB and the expressions of oncogenes includingc-jun,ofos,c-myc, NIK, MAPKs, ERK, ELK, PI3K, Akt, CDKs and iNOS. It is proposed that curcumin may suppress tumor promotion through blocking signal transduction pathways in the target cells. The oxidant tumor promoter TPA activates PKC by reacting with zinc thiolates present within the regulatory domain, while the oxidized form of cancer chemopreventive agent such as curcumin can inactivate PKC by oxidizing the vicinal thiols present within the catalytic domain. Recent studies indicated that proteasome-mediated degradation of cell proteins play a pivotal role in the regulation of several basic cellular processes including differentiation, proliferation, cell cycling, and apoptosis. It has been demonstrated that curcumin-induced apoptosis is mediated through the impairment of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Curcumin was first biotransformed to dihydrocurcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin and that these compounds subsequently were converted to monoglucuronide conjugates. These results suggest that curcumin-glucuronide, dihydrocurcumin-glucuronide, tetrahydrocurcumin-glucuronide and tetrahydrocurcumin are the major metabolites of curcumin in mice, rats and humans.