Impacts of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and soil water on the population dynamics, fecundity and development of the bird cherry-oat aphidRhopalosiphum padi
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- Xing, G., Zhang, J., Liu, J. et al. Phytoparasitica (2003) 31: 499. doi:10.1007/BF02979743
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The impacts of elevated CO2 and soil water on the population dynamics, adult fecundity and nymphal period of the bird cherry-oat aphidRhopalsiphum padi (Linnaeus) were evaluated in three experiments: (i)Combined effects of CO2and soil water on aphid populations. Spring wheat was grown in pots at three CO2 concentrations (350, 550 and 700 ppm) and three soil water levels (40%, 60% and 80% of field water capacity, FWC) in field open-top chambers (OTC) and infested with the bird cherry-oat aphid. Aphid population dynamics were recorded throughout the growing season; at the same time, adult fecundity and duration of the nymphal period were recorded. Chemical composition of spring wheat leaves was also analyzed. (ii)Indirect effects of CO2concentrations and soil water on aphid adult fecundity and nymphal period. The experiment was conducted with the leaf discs method in the laboratory. Aphids were reared on leaf discs excised from the treated wheat in OTC with different CO2 and soil water levels. (iii)Direct effects of CO2concentrations on aphid adult fecundity and nymphal period. Aphids were reared on leaf discs excised from the wheat grown under natural conditions. The experiment was conducted with the leaf disc method in OTC with the three CO2 concentrations. It was found that the direct effect of CO2 concentration on aphid population parameters was minor. CO2 and soil water affected aphid population indirectly through their effects on wheat characteristics. The aphid population under 550 ppm CO2 was far larger than the one under 350 ppm CO2, whereas the population under 700 ppm CO2 was slightly higher than that under 550 ppm CO2. The largest aphid population was obtained with the 60% soil water treatment, regardless of CO2 treatment. The effects of CO2 concentration on aphid population were, however, not significantly correlated with soil water level. Adult fecundity increased with CO2 concentration, the highest fecundity being achieved under 60% FWC treatments. The nymphal period was not affected by CO2 concentration. The shortest period occurred under 60% FWC. Atmospheric CO2 and soil water had significant effects on the chemical composition of the wheat leaves. Aphid population size was positively correlated with leaf water content, concentrations of soluble proteins, soluble carbohydrates and starch, and negatively correlated with DIMBOA and tannins concentrations.