Screening and Scenarios of Traffic Emissions at Trier, Germany
- Cite this article as:
- Junk, J., Helbig, A. & Krein, A. Environ Sci & Pollut Res (2004) 11: 297. doi:10.1007/BF02979642
Scope and Background
In the course of the European Council Directive on permissible air pollutant limit values, valid starting from 2005 there is an urgent call for action, particularly for fine dust (PM10). Current investigations (Junk & Helbig 2003, Reuter & Baumüller 2003) show that the limit values in certain places in congested areas are exceeded. Only if it is possible to locate these Hot Spots purposeful measures to reduce the ambient air pollution can be conducted. For an efficient identification of these Hot Spots numerical computer models or establishing special measurements networks are too expensive. Using the statistical model STREET 5.0 (KTT 2003) a cost-effective screening of the air pollution situation caused by the traffic can be done.
STREET is based on the 3-dimensional micro-scale non-hydrostatic flow- and dispersion model MISCAM (Eichhorn 1989). The results of over 100.000 different calculations with MISCAM are stored in a Database and used to calculate the emissions with STREET. In collaboration with the city council of Trier more than 150 streets were investigated, mapped, and calculated. A special urban climate measuring network supplies the necessary meteorological input data about the wind field and precipitation events in the valley of the Moselle. Information about road width and road orientation as well as building density was derived from aerial photographs. Traffic censuses and mobile air pollutants measurements supplied the remaining input data. We calculated the mean annual air pollutant concentrations for NO2, CO, SO2, O3, benzene as well as PM10-.
A comparison of the model results with the values obtained from the stations of the central emission measuring network of Rhineland-Palatinate (ZIMEN, annual report 2002) shows very good agreements. The model was not only used to calculate the annual air pollutant but also for urban planning and management. The absolute level of the air pollutant is mainly dependent on the amount of traffic in the street canyons. Therefore four different case-scenarios with varying quantity of traffic were calculated and interpreted for each street. The results of the calculation show that on the basis of the mean values for both NO2 and benzene, it is not to be expected that the limits will be exceeded significantly.
Furthermore the model can be used to find the maximum tolerable numbers of cars for a street without exceeding the air pollutant thresholds.