The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment

, Volume 3, Issue 6, pp 352–360

The ECO-indicator 98 explained

LCA methodology

DOI: 10.1007/BF02979347

Cite this article as:
Goedkoop, M., Hofstetter, P., Müller-Wenk, R. et al. Int. J. LCA (1998) 3: 352. doi:10.1007/BF02979347


The Eco-Indicator 98 project aims at a complete revision of the Eco-Indicator 95 methodology. Like its predecessor, the target is to develop single scores for designers. The method now includes resources and land use. Important improvements are: the use of fate analysis, the much better definition of the damage categories concerned with human health and ecosystem health, using the PAF (Potentially Affected Fraction) and DALY (Disability Adjusted Life Years) concept, and a completely new approach to modelling resources and land use. Perhaps the most fundamental improvement is the management system for value choices. The result of this management system is that there will be three instead of one indicator. Each version is based on a different cultural perspective. The method should be updated continuously. It is proposed to set up an independent organisation to guide this future development.


DALY conceptdamage categoriesDisability Adjusted Life Years (DALY)Eco-Indicator 98ecosystem healthfate analysishuman healthland usemanagement system for value choicesmodelling resources and land usePAF conceptPotentially Affected Fraction (PAF)resources, supply ofsafeguard subjects

Copyright information

© Ecomed Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.PRé ConsultantsBB-AmersfoortThe Netherlands
  2. 2.ETH-UNSZurich
  3. 3.IWÖ-HSGSt. Gallen