, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 21-27

Bone metabolic markers in bisphosphonate therapy for skeletal metastases in patients with breast cancer

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Abstract

The use of bisphosphonates for skeletal metastasis of breast cancer is now well established. Although clinical judgement for treating skeletal metastasis is based on symptoms and imaging studies, accurate or quantitative means are few. Various bone metabolic markers have been developed and these were evaluated in patients with metastasis to bone. Bone metabolic markers, especially resorption markers, have been shown to be a good tool for the monitoring the response to therapy for skeletal metastasis. This is also true for bisphosphonate treatment for skeletal metastasis. Bone metabolic markers are produced by different mechanisms. There are some different classes of resorption markers; tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) is secreted by osteoclast, N- and C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx and CTx) are the degradation the products of type I collagen, mainly produced by cathepsin K, and pyridinoline cross-linked carboxyl-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (ICTP) is also a degradation product of type I collagen, by matrix metalloproteases. Even though bone resorption markers are a good tool to monitor response to bisphosphonate therapy, there remains the question of which class of bone resorption markers is best suited to the task.

Reprint requests to Mitsuru Koizumi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Institute Hospital, 1-37-1, Kami-ikebukuro, Toshimaku, Tokyo 170-8455, Japan.