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For the purpose of developing a direct label-free electrochemical detection system, we have systematically investigated the electrochemical signatures of each step in the preparation procedure, from a bare gold electrode to the hybridization of label-free complementary DNA, for the streptavidin-modified electrode. For the purpose of this investigation, we obtained the following pertinent data; cyclic voltammogram measurements, electrochemical impedance spectra and square wave voltammogram measurements, in Fe(CN)63−/Fe(CN)64− solution (which was utilized as the electron transfer redox mediator). The oligonucleotide molecules on the streptavidin-modified electrodes exhibited intrinsic redox activity in the ferrocyanide-mediated electrochemical measurements. Furthermore, the investigation of electrochemical electron transfer, according to the sequence of oligonucleotide molecules, was also undertaken. This work demonstrates that direct label-free oligonucleotide electrical recognition, based on biofunctional streptavidin-modified gold electrodes, could lead to the development of a new biosensor protocol for the expansion of rapid, cost-effective detection systems.
direct electrochemical detectionlabel-free DNAstep-by-step procedurestreptavidinbiotin system