Folia Microbiologica

, Volume 52, Issue 6, pp 603–617

Survival and reproduction in some algae under stress conditions

  • S. Gupta
  • S. C. Agrawal

DOI: 10.1007/BF02932190

Cite this article as:
Gupta, S. & Agrawal, S.C. Folia Microbiol (2007) 52: 603. doi:10.1007/BF02932190


Pithophora oedogonia andCladophora glomerata survived lowest 60 and 58 %, respectively, in June when the pond diurnal water temperature (PDWT) increased to a maximum of 28 °C. The lowering of PDWT only by 1 °C in July improved survivability of both algae to their almost maximum level of 100 and 96 %, respectively. Further lowering of PDWT to 17–22 °C in November initiated akinete formation inP. oedogonia. The process of akinete initiation, maturation and germination continued till April when PDWT increased to 20–24 °C, but not beyond that in May when PDWT was 21–26 °C. By this time, probably all akinetes have germinatedin situ, and the alga was entirely vegetative.P. oedogonia population is not synchronous in nature, since during the 5–6 month reproductive season, some filaments were in active vegetative stage, some had akinete initiation, some had completed akinete formation, and some had akinetes germinating.C. glomerata grew dense vegetative in November and initiated (zoo)sporangial primordia formation (to some extent) in February (when PDWT was lowest,viz. 10–14 °C) till April. Meanwhile, no (zoo)-sporangial primordia either produced any zoospore or germinated into a germ tube; and all released their cytoplasmic content and died (along with some vegetative cells) with an increase in PDWT to 21–26 °C in May.Vaucheria geminata vegetative patches appeared on the soil surface, 2nd week of January by lowering of atmospheric diurnal temperature (ADT) to 9–16 °C in the 1st week. The alga started sexual reproduction by the 2nd week of March (when ADT increased to 20–23 °C) and completed the process of reproduction by the 1st week of April (when ADT increased to 24–26 °C) and died thereafter.P. oedogonia, C. glomerata andV. geminata survived better and longer in submerged conditions than air-exposed (which was true forP. oedogonia andC. glomerata aquatic habitat and also indicated that the soil algaV. geminata could survive to some extent if submerged in rain water).P. oedogonia formed akinetes andC. glomerata (zoo)sporangial primordia only in submerged condition and not when air-exposed on moist soil surface.V. geminata did not complete the life cycle both under submerged and air-exposed conditions. Vegetative survival inP. oedogonia, C. glomerata, V. geminata, Aphanothece pallida, Gloeocapsa atrata, Scytonema millei, Myxosarcina burmensis, Phormidium bohneri, Oscillatoria animalis, O. subbrevis, Lyngbya birgei, L. major, Microcoleus chthonoplastes andRhizoclonium crassipellitum, reproduction inP. oedogonia, C. glomerata andV. geminata, cell division inA. pallida andG. atrata, heterocyst and false branch formation inS. millei, all, were adversely affected at ≈28.5 °C for ≈12 h at light intensity of ≈160 µmol m−2 s−1; high intensity does not ameliorate high temperature damage to any algae. The presence of liquid water, than its absence, outside the different algae moderated the severity of heat to some extent but not when the heat was severe.


Aphanothece pallida

Cladophora glomerata

Gloeocapsa atrata

Lyngbya birgei

Lyngbya major


atmospheric diurnal temperature




akinete formation


antheridial papilla


cell division


false branch (formation)


germinated akinetes

Lyngbya mesotricha


Myxosarcina burmensis

Microcoleus chthonoplastes

Oscillatoria animalis

Oscillatoria subbrevis




immature akinetes


mature akinetes


oogonial papilla




pond diurnal water temperature


survived cells

Phormidium bohneri


Pithophora oedogonia

Rhizoclonium crassipellitum


Scytonema millei

Vaucheria geminata


soil moisture content


vegetative cells


vegetative filaments


vegetative survival


(zoo)sporangial primordia

Copyright information

© Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Gupta
    • 1
  • S. C. Agrawal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanyUniversity of AllahabadAllahabadIndia

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