Microorganisms in the midgut and rectum of the honeybee were enumerated and characterized. Counts of aerobic microorganisms were distinctly lower than counts of anaerobes (105–106 viable cells per g of intestinal contentvs. 108–109 per g). Total numbers of anaerobic microorganisms were almost identical with the count of anaerobic Gram-positive acid resistant rods. A higher number of coliform bacteria andBacillus spp. was detected in the rectum (105 per g). Anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms, coliforms, enterococci,Bacillus spp.,Pseudomonas spp. and yeasts were found in all bees; lactobacilli, staphylococci and moulds were not found.