Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 59–74

The ammonia freeze explosion (AFEX) process

A practical lignocellulose pretreatment
  • Mark T. Holtzapple
  • Jae-Hoon Jun
  • Ganesh Ashok
  • Srinivas L. Patibandla
  • Bruce E. Dale
Session 1 Thermal, Chemical, and Biological processing

DOI: 10.1007/BF02922589

Cite this article as:
Holtzapple, M.T., Jun, JH., Ashok, G. et al. Appl Biochem Biotechnol (1991) 28: 59. doi:10.1007/BF02922589

Abstract

The Ammonia Freeze Explosion (AFEX) process treats lignocellulose with high-pressure liquid ammonia, and then explosively releases the pressure. The combined chemical effect (cellulose decrystallization) and physical effect (increased accessible surface area) dramatically increase lignocellulose susceptibility to enzymatic attack. There are many adjustable parameters in the AFEX process: ammonia loading, water loading, temperature, time, blowdown pressure, and number of treatments. The effect of these parameters on enzymatic susceptibility was explored for three materials: Coastal bermudagrass, bagasse, and newspaper. Nearly quantitative sugar yields were demonstrated for Coastal bermudagrass and bagasse, using a very low enzyme loading (5 IU/g). Newspaper proved to be much more resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis.

Index Entries

Lignocellulose pretreatment Ammonia Freeze Explosion cellulase sugar 

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark T. Holtzapple
    • 1
  • Jae-Hoon Jun
    • 1
  • Ganesh Ashok
    • 1
  • Srinivas L. Patibandla
    • 1
  • Bruce E. Dale
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringTexas A & M University

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