, Volume 4, Issue 3, pp 230-241

Tumor and endothelial cell invasion of basement membranes

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Abstract

The spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to distant organs is the major cause of death of cancer patients. Metastatic lesions are often resistent to cancer therapy because of the progressive phenotypic changes that they have undergone. Several genetic and epigenetic factors, both in the cell and in the host, contribute to the development of tumor progression towards metastases. In this review we will analyze the steps involved in tumor metastases, which can be potential targets for anti-metastatic therapy. One of the most critical events in cancer metastasis is the invasion of basement membranes. An assay which we developed over ten years ago, the Matrigel “chemoinvasion” assay, has been a useful tool for studying the mechanisms involved in tumor and endothelial cell invasion of basement membranes and for the screening of anti-invasive agents. Here we will describe the assay and review some of the major results obtained with it.