Underutilizers of mammography screening today: Characteristics of women planning, undecided about, and not planning a mammogram
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Using concepts from the Precaution Adoption Process Model, we identified behavioral factors, sociodemographic and psychosocial variables, and beliefs about breast cancer that discriminated among women at different stages with regard to their intention to obtain mammography screening. An independent survey company conducted telephone interviews with 2,507 women aged 50 to 80 who were identified as underutilizers of mammography screening. Each underutilizer was assigned to one of three stages with regard to intention to get a mammogram: (a) definitely planning, (b) thinking about, and (c) not planning. Estimated actual risk of breast cancer, perceived risk to breast cancer, worry about breast cancer, and fear of learning from a mammogram that one has breast cancer were variables found to be significantly associated with intention to obtain a mammogram for several subgroups of underutilizing women. There are significant behavioral and psychosocial variables, beliefs and feelings about breast cancer, and demographic characteristics that distinguish underutilizing women at various stages with regard to intention to obtain mammography screening. Our findings provide new information that could help the health care professional motivate women who are not planning to utilize this preventive health measure to become regular utilizers.
Supplementary Material (0)
- Kerlikowske K, Grady D, Rubin SM, Sandcrock C, Ernster VL: Efficacy of screening mammography.Journal of the American Medical Association. 1995,273(2): 149–154. CrossRef
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Use of mammography-United States, 1990.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 1990,39(36): 621–630.
- Martin LM, Calle E, Wingo PA, Heath, CW: Comparison of mammography and pap test use from the 1987 and 1992 National Health Interview Surveys: Are we closing the gaps?American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 1996,12: 82–90.
- Hedegarrd HB, Davidson AJ, Wright RA: Factors associated with screening mammography in low-income women.American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 1996,12: 51–56.
- Zapka JG, Stoddard AM, Costanza ME, Greene HL: Breast cancer screening by mammography: Utilization and associated factors.American Journal of Public Health. 1989,79: 1499–1502.
- Costanza ME: The extent of breast cancer screening in older women.Cancer. 1994,74(7 Suppl.): 2046–2050. CrossRef
- Rakowski W, Pearlman D, Rimer B, Ehrich B: Correlates of mammography among women with low and high socioeconomic resources.Preventive Medicine. 1995,24: 149–158. CrossRef
- Lerman C, Rimer B, Engstrom PF: Reducing avoidable cancer mortality through prevention and early detection regimens.Cancer Research. 1989,49(18): 4955–4962.
- Rakowski W, Rimer BK, Bryant SA: Integrating behavior and intention regarding mammography by respondents in the 1990 National Health Interview Survey of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention.Public Health Report. 1993,108(5): 605–624.
- NCI Breast Cancer Screening Consortium: Screening mammography: A missed clinical opportunity? Results of the NCI Breast Cancer Screening Consortium and National Health Interview Studies.Journal of the American Medical Association. 1990,264(1): 54–58. CrossRef
- Zapka JG, Hosmer D, Costanza ME, Harris DR, Stoddard AM: Changes in mammography use: Economic, need, and service factors.American Journal of Public Health. 1992,82(10): 1345–1351.
- Curry SJ, Emmons KM: Theoretical models for predicting and improving compliance with breast cancer screenings.Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 1994,16(4): 302–316.
- Coyne CA, Hohman K, Levinson A: Reaching special populations with breast and cervical cancer public education.Journal of Cancer Education. 1992,7: 293–303. CrossRef
- Rosenstock IM: Historical origins of the Health Belief Model.Health Education Monographs. 1974,2: 1–8.
- Becker MH: The Health Belief Model and personal health behavior.Health Education Monographs. 1974,2: 324–508.
- Becker MH, Rosenstock IM: Comparing social learning theory and the Health Belief Model. In Ward WB (ed),Advances in Health Education and Promotion (Vol. 2). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1987.
- Montano DE, Thompson B, Taylor VM, Mahloch J: Understanding mammography intention and utilization among women in an inner city public hospital clinic.Preventive Medicine. 1997,26: 817–824. CrossRef
- Phillips KA, Kerlikowske K, Baker LC, Chang SW, Brown ML: Factors associated with women’s adherence to mammography screening guidelines.Health Services Research. 1998,33: 29–53.
- Aiken LS, West SG, Woodward CK, Reno RR: Health beliefs and compliance with mammography—Screening recommendations in asymptomatic women.Health Psychology. 1994,13: 122–129. CrossRef
- Hynes DM, Bastian LA, Rimer BK, Sloane R, Feussner JR: Predictors of mammography use among women veterans.Journal of Women’s Health. 1998,7: 239–247.
- Simon MS, Gimotty PA, Coombs J, et al: Factors affecting participation in a mammography screening program among members of an urban Detroit health maintenance organization.Cancer Detection and Prevention. 1998,22(1): 30–38. CrossRef
- Cole SR, Bryant CA, McDermott RJ, Sorrell C, Flynn M: Beliefs and mammography screening.American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 1997,13: 439–443.
- Meischke H, Andersen R, Bowen D, Kuniyuki A, Urban N: A health priorities model: Application to mammography screening.Health Education and Behavior. 1998,25: 383–395. CrossRef
- Rakowski W, Dube CE, Marcus BH, et al: Assessing elements of women’s decisions about mammography.Health Psychology. 1992,11: 111–118. CrossRef
- Rakowski W, Fulton JP, Feldman JP: Women’s decision-making about mammography: A replication of the relationship between stages of adoption and decisional balance.Health Psychology. 1993,12: 209–214. CrossRef
- Weinstein ND: The precaution adoption process.Health Psychology. 1988,7: 355–386. CrossRef
- Weinstein ND, Sandman PM: A model of the precaution adoption process: Evidence from home radon testing.Health Psychology. 1992,11: 170–180. CrossRef
- Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC: Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: Toward an integrative model of change.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1983,51: 390–395. CrossRef
- Weinstein ND, Rothman AM, Sutton SR: Stage theories of health behavior: Conceptual and methodological issues.Health Psychology. 1998,17: 290–299. CrossRef
- Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC: Common processes of self-change in smoking, weight control, and psychological distress. In Shiffman S, Wills TA (eds),Coping and Substance Use. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1985, 345–363.
- Harrison JA, Mullen PD, Green LW: A meta-analysis of studies of the Health Belief Model with adults.Health Education Research. 1992,7: 107–116. CrossRef
- Janz NK, Becker MH: The health belief: A decade later.Health Education Quarterly. 1984,11: 1–47.
- Rakowski W, Stoddard AM, Rimer BK, et al: Confirmatory analysis of opinions regarding the pros and cons of mammography.Health Psychology. 1997,16(5): 433–441. CrossRef
- Stoddard AM, Rimer BK, Lane D, et al: Underusers of mammogram screening: Stage of adoption in five U.S. subpopulations.Preventive Medicine. 1998,27: 478–487. CrossRef
- Rakowski W, Fulton JP, Feldman JP: Women’s decision-making about mammography: A replication of the relationship between stages of adoption and decisional balance.Health Psychology. 1993,12(3): 209–214. CrossRef
- Rimer B, Conaway M, Lyna P, et al: Cancer screening practices among women in a community health center population.American Journal of Public Health. 1996,12(5): 351–357.
- Gail MH, Brinton LA, Byar DP, et al: Projecting individualized probabilities of developing breast cancer for White females who are being examined annually.Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1989,81: 1879–1886. CrossRef
- Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S:Applied Logistic Regression. New York: Wiley, 1989.
- SAS Institute, Inc:SAS/STAT Statistical Software, Version 6.10. Cary, NC: 1989–1993.
- Stata Corporation:Stata Statistical Software: Release 5.0. College Station, TX: 1996.
- Lipkus IM, Rimer B, Strigo T: Relationships among objective and subjective risk for breast cancer and mammography stages of change.Cancer Epidemiology and Biomarkers Prevention. 1996,5: 1005–1011.
- Rimer BK, Trock B, Engstrom PF, Lerman C, King E: Why do some women get regular mammograms?American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 1991,7(2): 69–74.
- Siegler IC, Feaganes JR, Rimer B: Predictors of adoption of mammography in women under age 50.Health Psychology. 1995,14(3): 274–278. CrossRef
- Costanza ME, Stoddard A, Gaw V, Zapka JG: The risk factors of age and family history and their relationship to screening mammography utilization.Journal of the American Geriatric Society. 1992,40: 774–778.
- Smith RA, Haynes S: Barriers to screening for breast cancer.Cancer. 1992,69(7): 1968–1978. CrossRef
- Lerman C, Rimer BK, Trock B, Balshem A, Engstrom PF: Factors associated with repeat adherence to breast cancer screening.Preventive Medicine. 1990,19: 279–290. CrossRef
- Weinstein ND: Unrealistic optimism about susceptibility to health problems: Conclusions from a community-wide, sample.Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 1987,10: 481–500. CrossRef
- Sox CH, Dietrich AJ, Tosteson TD, Winchell CW, Lebaree CE: Periodic health examinations, and the provision of cancer prevention services.Archives of Family Medicine. 1997,6: 223–230. CrossRef
- Elmore EG, Barton MB, Moceri VM, et al: Ten-year risk of false positive screening mammograms and clinical breast examinations.New England Journal of Medicine. 1998,338: 1089–1096. CrossRef
- King E, Rimer BK, Trock B, Balshem A, Engstrom P: How reliable are mammography self reports?American Journal of Public Health. 1990,80: 1386–1388.
- Zapka JG, Bigelow C, Hurley T, et al: Mammography use among sociodemographically diverse women: The accuracy of self-report.American Journal of Public Health. 1996,86: 1016–1021. CrossRef
- Clemow LP, Luckmann R, Mitchell M, Savegeau J, Costanza ME: Telephone counseling to promote mammography utilization: For whom is it successful?Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 1999,21(Suppl.): 120.
About this Article
- Underutilizers of mammography screening today: Characteristics of women planning, undecided about, and not planning a mammogram
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Volume 22, Issue 1 , pp 80-88
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors