Fries JF: Aging, natural death, and the compression of morbidity.New England Journal of Medicine
Koplan JP, Livengood JR: The influence of changing demographic patterns on our health promotion priorities.American Journal of Preventive Medicine
United States Department of Health and Human Services:Health United States 1993. DHHS Publication No. (PHS) 94-1232. Hyattsville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1994, 153.
Wagner EH, LaCroix AZ, Buchner DM, Larson EB: Effects of physical activity on health status in older adults I: Observational studies.Annual Review of Public Health
Bowling A, Browne PD: Social networks, health, and emotional well-being among the oldest old in London.Journals of Gerontology
Leppin A, Schwarzer R: Social support and physical helath: An updated meta-analysis. In Schmidt LR, Schwenkmezger P, Weinman J, Maes S (eds),Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Health Psychology. Chur: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1990, 185–202.
Berkman L, Breslow L:Health and Ways of Living: Findings from the Alameda County Study. New York: Oxford University Press 1983.
Berkman LF: The role of social relations in health promotion.Psychosomatic Medicine
House J, Robbins C, Metzner H: The association of social relationships and activities with mortality: Prospective evidence from the Tecumseh Community Health Study.American Journal of Epidemiology
Blazer D: Social support and mortality in an elderly community population.American Journal of Epidemiology
Wolinsky FD, Johnson RL, Stump TE: The risk of mortality among older adults over an eight-year period.Gerontologist
Sugisawa H, Liang J, Liu X: Social networks, social support, and mortality among older people in Japan.Journals of Gerontology
Orth-Gomer K, Johnson JV: Social network interaction and mortality: A six-year follow-up study of a random sample of the Swedish population.Journal of Chronic Diseases
Kaplan GA, Wilson TW, Cohen RD, et al: Social functioning and overall mortality: Prospective evidence from the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study.Epidemiology
Mor V, Murphy J, Masterson-Allen S, et al: Risk of functional decline among well elders.Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Liu X, Liang J, Muramatsu N, Sugisawa H: Transitions in functional status and active life expectancy among older people in Japan.Journals of Gerontology: Social Sciences. 1995,50B: S383-S394.
Weinberger M, Tierney WM, Booher P, Hiner SL: Social support, stress, and functional status in patients with osteoarthritis.Social Science and Medicine
Falk A, Hanson BS, Isacsson SO, Ostergren PO: Job strain and mortality in elderly men: Social network, support, and influence as buffers.American Journal of Public Health
Rosengren A, Orth GK, Wedel H, Wilhelmsen L: Stressful life events, social support, and mortality in men born in 1933.British Medical Journal
Johnson JV, Stewart W, Hall EM, Fredlund P, Theorell T: Long-term psychological work environment and cardiovascular mortality among Swedish men.American Journal of Public Health
Schwarzer R, Jerusalem M, Hahn A: Unemployment, social support, and health complaints: A longitudinal study of stress in East German refugees.Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology
Fried Y, Tiegs RB: The main effect model versus buffering model of shop steward social support: A study of rank-and-file auto workers in the USA.Journal of Organizational Behavior
Fusilier MR, Ganster DC, Mayes BT: Effects of social support, role stress, and locus of control on health.Journal of Management
Rael EGS, Stansfeld SA, Shipley M, et al: Sickness absence in the Whitehall II study, London: The role of social support and material problems.Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Norris FH, Murrell SA: Social support, life events, and stress as modifiers of adjustment to bereavement by older adults.Psychology and Aging
Lissner L, Bengtsson C, Bjorkelund C, Wedel H: Physical activity levels and changes in relation to longevity.American Journal of Epidemiology. 1995,143: 54–62.
Rakowski W, Mor V: The association of physical activity with mortality among older adults in the Longitudinal Study of Aging (1984–1988).Journals of Gerontology
Rehm J, Fichter MM, Elton M: Effects on mortality of alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and close personal relationships.Addiction
Simonsick EM, Lafferty ME, Phillips CL, et al: Risk due to inactivity in physically capable older adults.American Journal of Public Health
Paffenbarger RS, Kampert JB, Lee IM, et al: Changes in physical activity and other lifeway patterns influencing longevity.Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Ruigomez A, Alonso J, Anto JM: Relationship of health behaviors to five-year mortality in an elderly cohort.Age and Ageing
Wolinsky FD, Stump TE, Clark DO: Antecedents and consequences of physical activity and exercise among older adults.Gerontologist. 1995,38: 451–462.
Shephard RJ: Exercise and aging: Extending independence in older adults.Geriatrics
Unger JB: Sedentary lifestyle as a risk factor for self-reported poor physical and mental health.American Journal of Health Promotion. 1995,9: 15–17.
Shephard RJ, Montelpare W: Geriatric benefits of exercise as an adult.Journal of Gerontology
Brown JD: Staying fit and staying well: Physical fitness as a moderator of life stress.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Wheeler RJ, Frank MA: Identification of stress buffers.Behavioral Medicine
Havighurst RJ: Successful aging. In Williams RH, Tibbits C, Donahue W (eds),Processes of Aging: Social and Psychological Perspectives. New York: Atherton, 1963, 299.
Strawbridge WJ, Camacho TC, Cohen RD, Kaplan GA: Gender differences in factors associated with change in physical functioning in old age: A 6-year longitudinal study.Gerontologist
Hanson BS, Isacsson SO, Janzon L, Lindell SE: Social network and social support influence mortality in elderly men.American Journal of Epidemiology
Krause N, Goldenhar L, Liang J, Jay G, Maeda D: Stress and exercise among the Japanese elderly.Social Science and Medicine
Potts MK, Hurwicz ML, Goldstein MS, Berkanovic E: Social support, health-promotive beliefs, and preventive health behaviors among the elderly.Journal of Applied Gerontology
Holmes TH, Rahe RH: The Social Readjustment Rating Scale.Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Ferraro KF: Widowhood and health. In Markides KS, Cooper CL (eds),Aging, Stress, and Health. New York: Wiley, 1989.
Ben-Shlomo Y, Smith GD, Shipley M, Marmot MG: Magnitude and causes of mortality differences between married and unmarried men.Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Elo IT, Preston SH: Educational differences in mortality: United States, 1979–1985.Social Science and Medicine
Jagger C, Sutton CJ: Death after marital bereavement—Is the risk increased?Statistics in Medicine
Kaprio J, Koskenvuo M, Rita H: Mortality after bereavement: A prospective study of 95,647 widowed persons.American Journal of Public Health
Mendes de Leon CF, Fillenbaum GG, Williams CS, et al: Functional disability among elderly Blacks and Whites in two diverse areas: The New Haven and North Carolina EPESE.American Journal of Public Health
Schaefer C, Quesenberry Jr. CP, Wi S: Mortality following conjugal bereavement and the effects of a shared environment.American Journal of Epidemiology
Roos NP, Havens B: Predictors of successful aging: A twelve-year study of Manitoba elderly.American Journal of Public Health
Katz S, Branch LG, Branson MH, et al: Active life expectancy.New England Journal of Medicine
Cox HG:Later Life: The Realities of Aging. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1993.
Penning MJ, Strain LA: Gender differences in disability, assistance, and subjective well-being in later life.Journals of Gerontology
Barer BM: Men and women aging differently.International Journal of Aging and Human Development
Ducharme F: Longitudinal change in conjugal support and coping behaviors of elderly marital partners.Journal of Family Nursing
Lubben JE, Weiler PG, Chi I: Gender and ethnic differences in the health practices of the elderly poor.Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
O’Brien SJ, Vertinsky PA: Unfit survivors: Exercise as a resource for aging women.Gerontologist
Berkman LF, Leo-Summers L, Horwitz RI: Emotional support and survival following myocardial infarction: A prospective population-based study of the elderly.Annals of Internal Medicine
Seeman TE, Berkman LF, Blazer D, Rowe JW: Social ties and support and neuroendocrine function: The MacArthur studies of successful aging.Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 1994,16: 95–106.
Rowe JW, Kahn RL: Human aging: Usual and successful.Science
Umberson D, Wortman CB, Kessler RC: Widowhood and depression: Explaining long-term gender differences in vulnerability.Journal of Health and Social Behavior
United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics: National Health Interview Survey: Longitudinal Study of Aging, 70 Years and Over, 1984–1990 (computer file) (5th Release). Hyattsville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics (producer). Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (distributor), 1991.
Ainsworth BE, Montoye HJ, Leon AS: Methods of assessing physical activity during leisure and work. In Bouchard C, Shephard RJ, Stephens T (eds),Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health, Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers 1994.
Schectman KB, Barzilai B, Rost K, Fischer EB: Measuring physical activity with a single question.American Journal of Public Health. 1991,81: 771–773.
Stewart AL, Greenfield S, Hays RD, et al: Functional status and well-being of patients with chronic conditions.Journal of the American Medical Association
Kosorok MR, Omenn GS, Diehr P, Koepsell TD, Patrick DL: Restricted activity days among older adults.American Journal of Public Health
Kim J, Mueller CW:Factor Analysis: Statistical Methods and Practical Issues. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1978.
Willett JB: Questions and answers in the measurement of change. In Rothkopf E (ed),Review of Research in Education, Washington, DC: AERA, 1988, 345–422.
Leigh JP, Fries JF: Health habits, health care use, and costs in a sample of retirees.Inquiry
Osler M: Social network and lifestyle in Danish adults.Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Heitzmann CA, Kaplan RM: Assessment of methods for measuring social support.Health Psychology
Thoits PA: Stress, coping, and social support processes: Where are we? What next?Journal of Health and Social Behavior
. 1995,Extra Issue