Sports Engineering

, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 201–208

Multiple modulation torque planning for a new golf-swing robot with a skilful wrist turn


DOI: 10.1007/BF02866058

Cite this article as:
Suzuki, S., Haake, S.J. & Heller, B.W. Sports Eng (2006) 9: 201. doi:10.1007/BF02866058


A new golf-swing robot that included a feed-forward controller in the shoulder joint and a passive wrist joint was suggested in previous studies to more closely model a skilful golfer. In this study, multiple modulation torque planning for a new golf-swing robot that is capable of modelling a skilful golfer’s swing with a delayed wrist turn was analytically examined. The twostep modulation torque included the effects of whole-body motion on shoulder acceleration, which improved the efficiency index of the swing motion and the club head speed at impact with a correctly timed wrist turn. In addition, it was demonstrated that the optimum moment of inertia and optimum design of club shaft rigidity for several types of golfers could be determined by torque planning in a virtual performance test.


wrist turnefficiency indexmultiple modulation torqueoptimum design

Copyright information

© isea 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical System EngineeringKitami Institute of TechnologyKitami, HokkaidoJapan
  2. 2.The Faculty of Health and WellbeingSheffield Hallam UniversitySheffieldUK