, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 201-208

Multiple modulation torque planning for a new golf-swing robot with a skilful wrist turn

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A new golf-swing robot that included a feed-forward controller in the shoulder joint and a passive wrist joint was suggested in previous studies to more closely model a skilful golfer. In this study, multiple modulation torque planning for a new golf-swing robot that is capable of modelling a skilful golfer’s swing with a delayed wrist turn was analytically examined. The twostep modulation torque included the effects of whole-body motion on shoulder acceleration, which improved the efficiency index of the swing motion and the club head speed at impact with a correctly timed wrist turn. In addition, it was demonstrated that the optimum moment of inertia and optimum design of club shaft rigidity for several types of golfers could be determined by torque planning in a virtual performance test.