Phaseolin-protein Variability in Wild Forms and Landraces of the Common Bean(Phaseolus vulgaris): Evidence for Multiple Centers of Domestication
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- Gepts, P., Osborn, T.C., Rashka, K. et al. Econ Bot (1986) 40: 451. doi:10.1007/BF02859659
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A sample of 106 wild forms and 99 landraces of common bean (Thaseolus vulgaris) from Middle America and the Andean region of South America were screened for variability in phaseolin seed protein using one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS/PAGE) and two-dimensional isoelectric focusing SDS/PAGE. The Middle American wild forms exhibited phaseolin patterns similar to the ‘S’ pattern described previously in cultivated forms, as well as a wide variety of additional banding patterns—‘M’ (Middle America) types—not encountered among common bean cultivars. The Andean wild forms showed only the ‘T’ phaseolin pattern, also described previously among cultivated forms. Landraces from Middle America showed ‘S’ or ‘S’-like patterns with the exception of 2 lines with ‘T’ phaseolin. In Andean South America, a majority of landraces had the ‘T’ phaseolin. Additional types represented in that region were (in decreasing order of frequency) the ‘S’ and ‘C’ types (already described among cultivated forms) as well as the ‘H’ (Huevo de huanchaco) and ‘A’ (Ayacucho), (new patterns previously undescribed among wild and cultivated beans). In each region—Middle America and Andean South America—the seeds of landraces with ‘T’ phaseolin were significantly larger than those of landraces with ‘S’ phaseolin. No significant differences in seed size were observed among landraces with ‘T,’ ‘C,’ ‘H,’ and ‘A’ phaseolin types of the Andean region. Our data favor 2 primary areas of domestication, one in Middle America leading to small-seeded cultivars with ‘S’ phaseolin patterns and the other in the Andes giving rise to large-seeded cultivars with ‘T’ (and possibly ‘C,’ ‘H,’ and ‘A’) phaseolin patterns.