General Article


, Volume 9, Issue 8, pp 57-66

First online:

Heisenberg and ferromagnetism

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Heisenberg’s contributions to the understanding of ferromagnetism are reviewed. The special features of ferromagnetism, vis-a-vis dia and para magnetism, are introduced and the necessity of a Weiss molecular field is explained. It is shown how Heisenberg identified the quantum mechanical exchange interaction, which first appeared in the context of chemical bonding, to be the essential agency, contributing to the co-operative ordering process in ferromagnetism.


Ferromagnetism magnetization internal field exchange