Chronic viral hepatitis Authors
Symposium: Pediatric Hepatology—Part II
Cite this article as: Chang, M. Indian J Pediatr (1995) 62: 673. doi:10.1007/BF02825113 Abstract
Among hepatitis A to E viruses, hepatitis B, C, and D viruses can cause chronic hepatitis, in both children and adults. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most prevalent and important one. Perinatal transmission accounts for about 40–45% of chronic HBV infection in hyperendemic areas. Horizontal transmission through intramuscular injection using non-sterile needles and intrafamilial spread accounts for the other half of carriers. During the natural course of HBV infection, the host gradually clears HBV and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), liver damage and elevation of aminotransferases occur during the process of HBV clearance. The most effective way to eliminate HBV infection is immunoprophylaxis starting since birth. It can prevent both HBV and hepatitis D virus (HDV) infections. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in children occurs mainly in high risk children, such as those who received blood product or injection using non-sterile needles, or infants of HCV viremic mothers, etc. Screening of blood product reduced markedly the prevalence of post-transfusion HCV infection, but the prevention of sporadic cases requires HCV vaccination which is still under investigation.
Key words Hepatitis B virus Hepatitis C virus Hepatitis D virus Immunoprophylaxis Seroepidemiology References
Stevens CE, Beasley RP, Tsui J, Lee WC. Vertical transmission of hepatitis B antigen in Taiwan.
N Engl J Med
1975; 292: 771–774.
Hsu HY, Chang MH, Chen DS, Lee CY, Sung JL. Baseline seroepidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in children in Taiepi, 1984: A study just before mass hepatitis B vaccination program in Taiwan.
J Med Virol
1986; 18: 301–307.
Beasley RP, Hwang LY, Lin CC, et al. Hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) efficacy in the interruption of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus carrier state.
Lancet 1981; 388–392.
Beasley PR, Hwang LY. Postnatal infectivity of hepatitis B surface antigencarrier mothers.
J Infect Dis 1995; 147: 185–190.
beasely PR, Hwang LY, Lin CC, et al. Incidence of hepatitis B virus infections in preschool children in Taiwan.
J Infect Dis 1982; 146: 198–204.
Beasley RP, Hwang LY, Lin CC, Ko YC, Twu SJ. Incidence of hepatitis among students at a university in Taiwan.
Amer J Epidemiol 1983; 117: 217–222.
Hsu SC, Chang MH, Ni YH, Hsu HY, Lee CY. Horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus in children.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr
1993; 16: 66–69.
Lee PI, Chang MH, Lee CY et al. Changes of serum hepatitis B virus DNA and transaminase level in the natural course of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in children.
1990; 12: 657–660.
Chang MH, Hsu HY, Hsu HC et al. The significance of spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion in childhood: With special emphasis on the clearance of HBeAg before three years of age.
Hepatology (In press).
Chang MH, Chen PJ, Chen JY, et al. Hepatitis B virus integration in hepatitis B virus related hepatocellular carcinoma in childhood.
1991; 13: 316–320.
Chang MH, Sung JL, Lee CY, et al. Factors affecting the clearance of hepatitis B e antigen in hepatitis B surface antigen carrier children.
1989; 115: 385–390.
Hsu HY, Chang MH, Hsieh KH, et al. Cellular immune response to hepatitis B core antigen in maternal-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus.
1992; 15: 770–776.
Chang MH, Hwang LY, Hsu HC, Lee CY, Beasley RP. Prospective study of asymptomatic HBsAg carrier children infected in the perinatal period: Clinical and liver histologic studies.
1988; 8: 374–377.
Chen DS, Hsu NHM, Sung JL, et al. A mass vaccination program in Taiwan against hepatitis B virus infection in infants of hepatitis B surface antigen-carrier mothers.
1987; 257: 2597–2603.
Tsen YJ, Chang MH, Hsu HY, et al. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in Taipei, 1989-five years after a mass vaccination program.
J Med virol
1991; 34: 96–99.
Choo QL, Kuo G, Weiner AJ, et al. Isolation of a cDNA clone derived from a blood-born non-A, non-B viral hepatitis genome.
1989; 244: 359–361.
Weiner AJ, Kuo G, Bradly D et al. Detection of hepatitis C virus sequences of non-A; non-B hepatitis.
1990; 335: 1–3.
Chen DS, Kuo G, Sung JL et al. Hepatitis C virus infection in an area hyperendemic for hepatitis B and chronic liver disease: the Taiwan experience.
J Infect Dis
1990; 162: 817–822.
Chang MH, Lee CY, Chen DS. Minimal role of hepatitis C virus infection in childhood liver diseases in an area hyperendemic for hepatitis B infection.
J Med Virol
1993; 40: 322–325.
Al-Faleh FZ, Ayoola A, Al-Jeffrey M et al. Prevalence of antibody to hepatitis C virus among Saudi Arabian children: A community based study.
1991; 14: 215–218.
Blanchett VS, Vorstman E, Shore A et al. Hepatitis C infection in children with hemophilia A and B. Blood 1991; 78: 285–289.
Bhattacharya DK, Bhattacharjee S, Lahiri P et al.
Indian J Med Res
1991; 94: 430–432.
Ni YH, Chang MH, Lue HC et al. Postransfusion hepatitis C virus infection in children.
1994; 124: 709–713.
Kao JH, Chen Pj, Yang PM et al. Interfamilial transmission of hepatitis C virus: The important role of infections between spouses.
J Infect Dis 1991; 166: 900–903.
Ni YH, Lin HH, Chen PJ et al. Temporal profile of hepatitis C virus antibody and genome in infants born to mothers infected with hepatitis C virus but without human immunodeficiency virus coinfection.
1994; 20: 641–645.
Ohto H, Terazawa S, Sasaki N et al. Transmission of hepatitis C virus from mothers to infants.
N Engl J Med
1994; 330: 774–750.
Marcellin P, Bernard J., Martinot-Peignoux M et al. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in symptomatic anti-HIV negative pregnant women and their children.
Digest Dis Sci
1993; 38: 2151–2155.
Lin HH, Kao JH, Hsu HY et al. Possible role of high titer maternal veremia in perinatal transmission of hepatitis C virus.
J Infect Dis
1994; 169: 638–641.
Lin HH, Kao JH, Hsu HY et al. Absence of infection in breast-fed infants born to hepatitis C virus-infected mothers.
1995; 126: 589–591.
Chang MH, Ni YH, Hwang LH et al. Long-term clinical and virologic outcome of primary hepatitis C virus infection in children: a prospective study.
Pediatr Infect Dis J
1994; 13: 769–773.
Bortolotti F, Jara P, Diaz C et al. Posttransfusion and immunicity acquired hepatitis C in childhood.
Gastroenterol Nutr 1994; 18: 279–283.
Hoofngale JH, Di Bisceglie A, Shindo M. Antiviral therapy of hepatitis C-Present and future.
1994; 17: S130–136.
Fujisawa T, Ohkawa T, Inui A, Yokata S. Effect of interferon therapy on serum hepatitis C virus RNA levels in children with chronic hepatitis C. International Hepatology communications 1994; 2: 316–320.
Clemente MG, Congia M, Lai ME et al. Effect of iron overload on the response to recombinant interferon-alfa treatment in transfusion-dependent patients with thalassemia major and chronic hepatitis C.
1994; 125: 123–128.
Rizzetoo M, Canese MG, Arico S et al. Immunofluorescence detection of new antigen-antibody (delta/anti-delta) system associated to hepatitis B virus in liver and in serum of HBsAg carriers.
1977; 18: 997–1103.
Makino S, Change MF, Shieh CK et al. Molecular cloning and sequencing of a human hepatitis delta virus RNA.
1987; 329: 243–346.
Maggiore G, Hadchouel M, Sess F et al. A retrospective study of the role of delta agent infection in children with HBsAg-positive chronic hepatitis.
1985; 5: 7–9.
Hsu Hy, Chang MH, Chen DS, Lee CY. Hepatitis D virus infection in children with acute or chronic hepatitis B virus Infection in Taiwan.
1988; 112: 888–892.
PubMed CrossRef Copyright information
© Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 1995