Chronic viral hepatitis
Symposium: Pediatric Hepatology—Part II
10.1007/BF02825113 Cite this article as: Chang, M. Indian J Pediatr (1995) 62: 673. doi:10.1007/BF02825113 Abstract
Among hepatitis A to E viruses, hepatitis B, C, and D viruses can cause chronic hepatitis, in both children and adults. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most prevalent and important one. Perinatal transmission accounts for about 40–45% of chronic HBV infection in hyperendemic areas. Horizontal transmission through intramuscular injection using non-sterile needles and intrafamilial spread accounts for the other half of carriers. During the natural course of HBV infection, the host gradually clears HBV and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), liver damage and elevation of aminotransferases occur during the process of HBV clearance. The most effective way to eliminate HBV infection is immunoprophylaxis starting since birth. It can prevent both HBV and hepatitis D virus (HDV) infections. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in children occurs mainly in high risk children, such as those who received blood product or injection using non-sterile needles, or infants of HCV viremic mothers, etc. Screening of blood product reduced markedly the prevalence of post-transfusion HCV infection, but the prevention of sporadic cases requires HCV vaccination which is still under investigation.
Key words Hepatitis B virus Hepatitis C virus Hepatitis D virus Immunoprophylaxis Seroepidemiology References
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© Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 1995