, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 181-204

Dopamine receptor localization in the mammalian retina

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Abstract

After a short history of dopamine receptor discovery in the retina and a survey on dopamine receptor types and subtypes, the distribution of dopamine receptors in the retinal cells is described and correlated with their possible role in cell and retinal physiology. All the retinal cells probably bear dopamine receptors. For example, the recently discovered D1B receptor has a possible role in modulating phagocytosis by the pigment epithelium and a D4 receptor is likely to be involved in the inhibition of melatonin synthesis in photoreceptors. Dopamine uncouples horizontal and amacrine cell-gap junctions through D1-like receptors. Dopamine modulates the release of other transmitters by subpopulations of amacrine cells, including that of dopamine through a D2 autoreceptor. Ganglion cells express dopamine receptors, the role of which is still uncertain. Müller cells also are affected by dopamine. A puzzling action of dopamine is observed in the ciliary retina, in which D1- and D2-like receptors are likely to be involved in the cyclic regulation of intraocular pressure. Most of the dopaminergic actions appears to be extrasynaptic and the signaling pathways remain uncertain. Further studies are needed to better understand the multiple actions of dopamine in the retina, especially those that implicate rhythmic regulations.