, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 5-35

Gene transfer by electroporation

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Electroporation of cells in the presence of DNA is widely used for the introduction of transgenes either stably or transiently into bacterial, fungal, animal, and plant cells. A review of the literature shows that electroporation parameters are often reported in an incomplete or incorrect manner, forcing researchers to rely too much on a purely empirical trial and error approach. The goal of this article is to provide the reader with an understanding of electrical circuits used in electroporation experiments as well as physical and biological aspects of the electroporation process itself. Further, a simple paradigm is provided which unites all electroporation parameters. This article should be particularly useful to those new to the technique.