How do mutated oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes cause cancer? Authors
Received: 23 December 1997 Accepted: 02 January 1998 DOI:
Cite this article as: Grandér, D. Med Oncol (1998) 15: 20. doi:10.1007/BF02787340 Abstract
In recent decades we have been given insight into the process that transforms a normal cell into a malignant cancer cell. It has been recognised that malignant transformation occurs through successive mutations in specific cellular genes, leading to the activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. The further study of these genes has generated much of its excitement from the convergence of experiments addressing the genetic basis of cancer, together with cellular pathways that normally control important cellular regulatory programmes. In the present review the context in which oncogenes such as proliferation, cell death/apoptosis, differentiation and senescence will be described, as well as how these cellular programmes become deregulated in cancer due to mutations.
Keywords oncogenes tumor suppressor genes proliferation apoptosis differentiation senescence References
Palmero I, Peters G. Perturbation of cell cycle regulators in human cancer.
Wyllie AH. Apoptosis and carcinogenesis.
Eur J Cell Biol
Hayflick L. The limited
lifetime of human diploid strains.
Exp Cell Res
Campisi J. Replicative senescence: An old live's tale?.
Cleaver JE. It was a very good year for DNA repair.
Graña X, Reddy EP. Cell cycle control in mammalian cells: role of cyclins, cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), growth suppressor genes and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs).
Pardee AB. G-1 events and regulation of cell proliferation.
Kamb A, Gruis NA, Weaver-Feldhaus J. A cell cycle regulator potentially involved in genesis of many tumor types.
Yang E, Korsmeyer SJ. Molecular thanatopsis: A discourse on the BCL2 family and cell death,
Whyte M. ICE/CED-3 proteases in apoptosis.
Cell Biol 1996; 6: 245–248.
Fraser A, Evan G. A license to kill.
Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW. p53 function and dysfunction.
Olsson I, Bergh G, Ehinger M, Gullberg U. Cell differentiation in acute myeloid leukaemia.
Eur J Hematol
Sachs L. Control of normal cell differentiation and the phenotypic reversion of malignancy in myeloid leukaemia.
Involvement of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16 (INK4a) in replicative senescence of normal human fibroblasts.
Proc Nat Acad Sci USA
Harley CB, Villeponteau B. Telomeres and telomerase in aging and cancer.
Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Jones JL, Walker RA. Cell-cell and cell-stromal interactions in breast cancer invasion and metastasis.
International Journal of Oncology 1997; 11: 609–616. Copyright information
© Stockton Press All rights reserved 1998