Miltefosine in children with visceral leishmaniasis: A prospective, multicentric, cross-sectional study
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- Singh, U.K., Prasad, R., Mishra, O.P. et al. Indian J Pediatr (2006) 73: 1077. doi:10.1007/BF02763048
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Miltefosine, an alkyl phospholipid has been found effective against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in adults in various studies. The authors safety, tolerance and efficacy of Miltefosine and compared with available gold standard anti-leishmanial drug, Amphotericin B, a parenteral formulation in children with VL.
All consecutive children aged 1 yr to 14 yr, presented with fever, splenomegaly and positive LD body in splenic smear examination, admitted in pediatric ward of Nalanda Medical college and Child care center between 1st July 03 to 30th June 05 were taken for study. Patients were randomized into four groups. Group-1 and 2 patients were given Miltefosine in dose of 2.5 mg/Kg day o.d. or b.i.d. per orally to a maxilpum of 100 mg and group 3 and 4 Amphotericin B at a dose of 1 mg/Kg/day (total: 15 mg/Kg). All patients were followed at completion of therapy, 3 months and 6 months for clinical response, splenic size and parasitologically.
Out of 125 children, 44 were in group-1, 20 in group-2, 38 in group-3 and 23 in group 4, 124 patients had parasitological cure with relapse in one patient of group 1 during follow up. One patient in-group II had no response with first course but became parasitologically negative with 2nd course of Miltefosine. In-group I, one patient had persistent splenomegaly and found to have associated portal hypertension. Final cure rate with Miltefosine and Amphotericin B was 93.2%, 95%, 92.1% and 91.3% in-group 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively, which are statistically insignificant. Majority of patients had pancytopenia. Eievated″. AL T (>3 times of normal) were seen in 28, 11, 19 and 13 patients of group 1, 2, 3 and group 4 respectively which returned to normal in subsequent follow up. Raised BUN was observed more in patients who got Amphotericin B i.e. 65.42% and 73.91% in-group 3 and 4 respectively. GI side effects i.e. diarrhea and vomiting were observed in 26 and 23 patients in-group 1 and 2 respectively.
Miltefosine is safe, well tolerable, and highly effective and has same efficacy as Amphotericin B in newly diagnosed and SAG resistant children with visceral leishmaniasis.