Israel Journal of Mathematics

, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 326-350

First online:

Martingales with values in uniformly convex spaces

  • Gilles PisierAffiliated withCentre de Mathématiques, Ecole Polytechnique

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Using the techniques of martingale inequalities in the case of Banach space valued martingales, we give a new proof of a theorem of Enflo: every super-reflexive space admits an equivalent uniformly convex norm. Letr be a number in ]2, ∞[; we prove moreover that if a Banach spaceX is uniformly convex (resp. ifδ x(ɛ)/ɛ r whenɛ → 0) thenX admits for someq<∞ (resp. for someq<r) an equivalent norm for which the corresponding modulus of convexity satisfiesδ(ɛ)/ɛ q → ∞ whenɛ → 0. These results have dual analogues concerning the modulus of smoothness. Our method is to study some inequalities for martingales with values in super-reflexive or uniformly convex spaces which are characteristic of the geometry of these spaces up to isomorphism.