Structural features of heterotrimeric G-protein-coupled receptors and their modulatory proteins
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- LeVine, H. Mol Neurobiol (1999) 19: 111. doi:10.1007/BF02743657
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Over the past 20 years, the general mechanism for signaling through 7-transmembrane helix receptors coupled to GTP hydrolysis has been worked out. Although similar in overall organization, subtype variability and subcellular localization of components have built in considerable signaling specificity. Atomic resolution structures for many of the components have delineated the domain organization of these complex proteins and have given physical form to the idea of subtype specificity. This review describes what is known about the physical structures of the 7-transmembrane helix receptors, the heterotrimeric GTP binding coupling proteins, the adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C effector proteins, and signaling modulatory proteins, such as arrestin, phosducin, recoverin-type myristoyl switch proteins, and the pleckstrin homology domain of G-protein receptor kinase-2. These images allow experimenters to contemplate the details of the supramolecular organization of the multiprotein complexes involved in the transmission of signals across the cellular lipid bilayer.