Where has all the copper gone: The stocks and flows project, part 1
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
The quantitative assessment of stocks and flows of materials throughout the technological cycle, from resource extraction to final disposal, can inform resource policy, environmental science, and waste management. This paper describes the technological cycle of copper based on work by the Stocks and Flows Project of the Yale Center for Industrial Ecology. Of copper produced in the 20th century, as much as 85% remains in use today. The recycling rate, while high, leaves nearly as much in waste destined for disposal (e.g., over 40% in the United States). The copper in production wastes currently approaches the quantity in post-consumer wastes, but the latter will dwarf the former over time as large in-use stocks reach end of life.
- J. Jacobs,The Economy of Cities (New York: Random House, 1969).
- J. E. Tilton,Borrowed Time? Civilization and the Threat of Mineral Depletion (Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future, 2001).
- Metal Statistics (Ware, England: World Bureau of Metal Statistics, 1996).
- J. Craig,Workshop on Material Flows (Washington, D.C.: U.S. National Academy of Engineering, 26 January 1998).
- T.E. Graedel et al., “The Contemporary European Copper Cycle: The Characterization of Technological Copper Cycles,”Ecological Economics, 42 (2002), pp. 9–26. CrossRef
- M. Bertram et al., “The Contemporary European Copper Cycle: Waste Management Subsystem,”Ecological Economics, 42 (2002), pp. 43–57. CrossRef
- World Metal Statistics (Ware, U.K.: World Bureau of Metal Statistics, 1996).
- G. Joseph,Copper: Its Trade, Manufacture, Use, and Environmental Status (Materials Park, OH: ASM International, 1999).
- S. Spatari et al., “The Contemporary European Copper Cycle: 1 Year Stocks and Flows,”Ecological Economics, 42 (2002), pp. 27–42. CrossRef
- 1930–1935:1936 Minerals Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: United States Department of the Interior and Bureau of Mines, 1936), p. 122; 1936–1940:1941 Minerals Yearbook (Washington, D.C.: United States Department of the Interior and Bureau of Mines, 1941), p. 97; 1960-1999:1980–2002—Annual Data: Copper Supply and Consumption (New York: Copper Development Association Inc.), Table 4.
- R.B. Gordon, “Production Residues in Copper Technological Cycles,”Resources, Conservation and Recycling 36 (2002), pp. 87–106. CrossRef
- L. Lander and L. Lindeström,Copper in Society and in the Environment: An Account of the Facts on Fluxes, Amounts and Effects of Copper in Sweden (VÄsterås, Sweden: Scandinavian Copper Development Association, 1999).
- P. Baccini and P. Brunner,Metabolism of the Anthroposphere (Berlin-New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991).
- D. van Beers and IE. Graedel, “The Magnitude and Spatial Distribution of In-Use Copper Stocks in Capetown,”South African Journal of Science (2002).
- R.B. Gordon et al.,Toward a New Iron Age?: Quantitative Modeling of Resource Exhaustion (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987).
- “Harbor Project: Industrial Ecology, Pollution Prevention and the New York/New Jersey Harbor,” New York Academy of Sciences (2002),http://www.nyas.org/ policy/harbor/highlights, html.
- ”Special Series on Chlorine Flows and the Environment,”J. Industrial Ecologyy2002), http://www.yale.edu/jie/SpecSeries.htm.
- Where has all the copper gone: The stocks and flows project, part 1
Volume 54, Issue 10 , pp 21-26
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors