, Volume 45, Issue 3, pp 213-224

Systematic observations on tropical Asian medakas or ricefishes of the genusOryzias , with descriptions of four new species

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Abstract

The so-calledOryzias melastigma (McClelland, 1839), reported from India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Malaysia by numerous authors beginning with Day (1877), is based mainly or entirely onAplocheilus panchax (Hamilton, 1822). India and Bangladesh have two species ofOryzias, both large. The deeper-bodied of these two species is reported for the first time asO. dancena (Hamilton, 1822). The other is identified asO. carnaticus (Jerdon, 1849). Myanmar has one large species,O. dancena, and one tiny species,O. uwai new species.Oryzias minutillus Smith, 1945 andO. uwai differ from all otherOryzias in having 4/5 instead of 5/6 principal caudal fin rays.Oryzias uwai differs fromO. minutillus in being more conspicuously pigmented and having large, 6-rayed pelvic fins often extending to anal fin origin instead of much smaller and shorter 5-rayed pelvic fins. In Thailand (including its part of the Mekong basin) three species are known: a large estuarine species tentatively identified asO. javanicus (Bleeker, 1854) and two tiny inland species,O. mekongensis Magtoon & Uwa, 1986, andO. minutillus. Oryzias minutillus from many localities are more or less melanoproctic, i.e. have a darkly pigmented genital or vent area not seen in other species. The Mekong basin in Laos has two large species,O. latipes (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846) andO. pectoralis new species, distinguished by a prominent black blotch on the pectoral fin base, both recently collected in the Nam Theun watershed in central Laos; and two tiny species,O. mekongensis andO. minutillus. Only one species ofOryzias is known from the Mekong delta in Vietnam, the small moderately deep-bodiedO. haugiangensis new species, with 19–22 anal and 9–10 pectoral fin rays. The Indonesian island of Java has one large species,O. javanicus (Bleeker, 1852) with 21–25 anal and 11 pectoral fin rays, and one small species,O. hubbsi new species, with only 17–21 anal and 9 pectoral fin rays.