Metallurgical Transactions B

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 299–305

A new finite element model for welding heat sources


  • John Goldak
    • Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical EngineeringCarleton University
  • Aditya Chakravarti
    • AMCA Corporation
  • Malcolm Bibby
    • Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical EngineeringCarleton University
Transport Phenomena

DOI: 10.1007/BF02667333

Cite this article as:
Goldak, J., Chakravarti, A. & Bibby, M. MTB (1984) 15: 299. doi:10.1007/BF02667333


A mathematical model for weld heat sources based on a Gaussian distribution of power density in space is presented. In particular a double ellipsoidal geometry is proposed so that the size and shape of the heat source can be easily changed to model both the shallow penetration arc welding processes and the deeper penetration laser and electron beam processes. In addition, it has the versatility and flexibility to handle non-axisymmetric cases such as strip electrodes or dissimilar metal joining. Previous models assumed circular or spherical symmetry. The computations are performed with ASGARD, a nonlinear transient finite element (FEM) heat flow program developed for the thermal stress analysis of welds.* Computed temperature distributions for submerged arc welds in thick workpieces are compared to the measured values reported by Christensen1 and the FEM calculated values (surface heat source model) of Krutz and Segerlind.2 In addition the computed thermal history of deep penetration electron beam welds are compared to measured values reported by Chong.3 The agreement between the computed and measured values is shown to be excellent.

Copyright information

© The Metallurgical of Society of AIME 1984