Lipids

, Volume 35, Issue 2, pp 123–130

Lipids and retroviruses

Review

DOI: 10.1007/BF02664760

Cite this article as:
Raulin, J. Lipids (2000) 35: 123. doi:10.1007/BF02664760

Abstract

The role that lipids may play in enveloped viruses is revie ved. Small lipid molecules can influence retrovirus binding to cell receptors, plasma membrane fusion, and transcription. Palmitoylation following myristoylation of viral glycoproteins is required at the transmembrane level for signal transduction as well as for virion budding and maturation. Cholesterol, ether lipids, phospholipids, platelet-activating factor, phosphatidic acids, diacyglycerols, and several analogs and derivatives influence human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity; when conjugated with inhibitors of the viral reverse transcriptase (RT) or aspartyl protease these compounds increase drug effectiveness. On the other hand,l-carnitine, in association with the mitochondrial cardiolipins, inhibits myopathy due to continued prescription of drugs [AZT (zidovudine), ddl (didanoside), or ddC (zalcitabine)], and the redox couple of α-lipoic-dihydrolipoic acid prevents production of the reactive oxygen species that trigger apoptosis of infected cells, with sphingomyelin breakdown to ceramides. Retroviral infection induces a shift from phospholipid to neutral fat synthesis in host cells, and a long antiviral, i.e., antiprotease, treatment may lead to lipodystrophy. Multitherapy involving lipids and their analogs in association with anti-RT and antiproteases might enhance the inhibition of growth and proliferation of retroviruses.

Abbreviations

12MO

12-methoxydodecanoic acid

AIDS

acquired immune deficiency syndrome

AZT

zidovudine

CD4

a transmembrane glycoprotein present in T-helper cells

CEM

human T-lymphocytes

CER

ceramide

C/P

cholesterol to phospholipid molar ratio

CP-51

1-octadecanamido-2-ethyoxypropyl-rac-3-phosphocholine

CTK

cytotoxic T-lymphocyte

DAG

diacylglycerol

ddC

zalcitabine

ddl

didanosine

EL

ether lipid

GPI

glycan phosphatidylinositol

HIV

human immunodeficiency virus

NB-kB

transcription factor

NMT

N-myristoylCoA transferase

ODG

1-O-octadecyl-sn-glycerol

PA

phosphatidic acid

PAF

platelet-activating factor

PC

phosphatidylcholine

PFA

phosphonoformate

PGE2

prostaglandin E2

PLC

phospholipase-C

PI

phosphatidylinositol

PI 3-K

phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase

PI 4-K

phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase

PKC

protein kinase C

PTK

protein-tyrosine kinase

ROS

reactive oxygen species

RT

reverse transcriptase

SM

sphinogmyelin

SUgp120

virus surface glycoprotein

Copyright information

© AOCS Press 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Université Denis Diderot (Paris 7)Paris 05France

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