Control of the Fe2+ concentration in iron-doped lithium niobate
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- Phillips, W. & Staebler, D.L. JEM (1974) 3: 601. doi:10.1007/BF02652959
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The conversion of Fe3+ to Fe2+ in LiNbO3 has been investigated and two techniques for accomplishing this without producing reduction of the host crystal are described. Annealing Fe-doped crystals in argon or argon-oxygen mixtures converts up to about 90% of the Fe to Fe2+. Greater amounts are converted by annealing the crystals in oxygen or air while they are packed in powdered Li2CO3. These techniques are of use to optimize crystals for various holographic storage applications.