The activity coefficient of oxygen in binary liquid metal alloys
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- Chiang, T. & Chang, Y.A. MTB (1976) 7: 453. doi:10.1007/BF02652717
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The Wagner model with one energy parameter,h, for describing the effect of alloying elements on the activity coefficients of nonmetallic solutes in liquid metals is extended to have two energy parameters,h1andh2. The validity of both the Wagner one-parameter equation and the newly derived two-parameter equation is tested using data available in the literature for twelve ternary metal-oxygen systems. In order to have consistent thermodynamic data, all the relevant binary, as well as the twelve ternary metal-oxygen systems are evaluated using the same thermodynamic values for the reference materials which were used in carrying out the experimental measurements. It is found that the twoparameter equation is capable of quantitatively accounting for the compositional dependences of the activity coefficients of oxygen in all twelve ternary systems while the Wagner one-parameter equation is not. A correlation between the Wagner parameter,h, and the thermodynamic properties of the respective binary metal-oxygen and binary metals systems is found, from which the value of this parameter may be predicted without referring to any ternary data. Accordingly, the two-parameter equation is more useful in evaluating ternary experimental data while the Wagner one-parameter equation in connection with the correlation betweenh and binary data is capable of predicting ternary data without any experimental investigation in the ternary region. Based on the one-parameter and the two-parameter equations, theoretical equations for the first-order and second-order free energy interaction parameters,(∈0j)sand(ρ0j)s, are derived in terms of the model parameters. The values of(∈0j)s and(ρ0j)s for all the systems are derived and are found to vary linearly with the reciprocal of temperature. Furthermore, linear relationships between these two interaction parameters and their slopes with 1/T are found, from which the temperature dependence of the interaction parameters may be estimated in the absence of experimental data.