, Volume 72, Issue 2, pp 171-176

Fat encapsulation in spray-dried food powders

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The surface composition of spray-dried sodium caseinate/lactose emulsions having different oil phases were estimated using electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), and the particle structure was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) both before and after storage under humid conditions. After spray-drying, powders in which the oil phases consisting of fats with intermediate melting points, such as hardened coconut oil and butter fat, had the highest surface coverage of fat, approximately 34%. The powder with soybean oil as the oil phase had a surface coverage of fat of approximately 15%. The high-melting hardened rapeseed oil was almost completely encapsulated after spray-drying. After storage in a humid atmosphere, fat was released onto all the powder surfaces (surface fat after storage, between 50–65%) except for those with hardened rapeseed oil in which the fat remained encapsulated. These observations are consistent with the powder structure observed by SEM. The surface composition estimated by ESCA for spray-dried sodium caseinate/lactose-containing emulsions with different amounts of soybean oil and a constant lactose/sodium caseinate ratio showed an almost completely encapsulated oil-phase after drying. Storage of these powders in a humid atmosphere leads to a release of fat onto the powder surface even if the soybean oil content is low (1% of the dry weight). Powders made from soybean oil emulsions with sodium caseinate alone exhibit a much lower degree of encapsulation than in the system where lactose is present.