The cross-reactivity of five different rabbit polyclonal antibodies to human IgG and IgG subclass (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) was determined by competitive ELISA with nine nonhuman primate species including five apes, three Old World monkeys, and one New World monkey. As similar to those previously reported, the reactivity of anti-human IgG antibody with plasma from different primate species was closely related with phylogenic distance from human. Every anti-human IgG subclass antibody showed low cross-reactivity with plasma from Old World and New World monkeys. The plasma from all apes except for gibbons (Hylobates spp.) showed 60 to 100% of cross-reactivity with anti-human IgG2 and IgG3 antibodies. On the other hand, chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes andPan paniscus) and orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) plasma showed 100% cross-reactivity with anti-human IgG1 antibody, but gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) and gibbon plasma showed no cross-reactivity. The chimpanzee and gorilla plasma cross-reacted with anti-human IgG4 antibody at different reactivity, 100% in chimpanzee and 50% in gorilla, but no cross-reactivity was observed in orangutan and gibbon plasma. These results suggest the possibilities that the divergence of “human-type” IgG subclasses might occur at the time of divergence ofHomo sapience fromHylobatidae, and that the molecular evolution of IgG1 as well as IgG4 is different from that of IgG2 and IgG3 in great apes, this is probably caused by different in development of immune function in apes during the course of evolution.