A human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line (KYN-1) has been established from a resected HCC of a 58-yr-old Japanese, male patient with HCC. Original resected HCC was moderately differentiated and proliferated in a solid pattern with vague trabecular structure in part. This cell line has been maintained for 10 mo. through 50 passages. Morphological features of KYN-1 cells demonstrated one or more large, round-to-oval nuceli with prominent nucleoli and eosinophilic polygonal-to-spindle abundant cytoplasm. In addition, some of these cells contained mucicarmin-positive materials in the cytoplasm. The cells exhibited a typical epithelial feature with pavementlike cell arrangement, and lacked contact inhibition. The doubling times of the cells grown in a serum-containing and a serum-fre, medium were about 31 h and 10 to 11 d, respectively. Functonally, KYN-1 cells produced albumin, α-fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), ferritin, β2-microglobulin (BMG), and α1-anti-trypsin (AAT). Positive reactions for albumin, AFP, CEA, and ferritin were identified in the cells by immunohistochemical techniques. Chromosome study revealed the chromosome number in a range from 61 to 74 without mode. The tumorigenicity of KYN-1 cells was identified by the tumor formation after subcutaneous inoculation of the cells into nude mice. The developed tumor showed compact growth of the tumor cells with gland formations containing mucicarmin-positive materials. Features of adenocarcinoma were identified by electron microscopy. The tumor cells were also identified to contain albumin, AFP, CEA, ferritin, and AAT by immunohistochemical techniques. AFP, CEA, and BMG were detected in the sera of nude mice. Thus, KYN-1 cells represented the morphologic features of adenocarcinoma, retaining some characteristics of original HCC. These findings suggest that KYN-1 is a new human HCC cell line with transformation to adenocarcinoma, which will provide useful information to clarify the histogenesis of combined hepatocellular and cholangiocellular carcinoma.