In vivo photometric analysis of hemoglobin
- Dr. Roland N. Pittman
- … show all 1 hide
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Since virtually all the oxygen carried by blood at normal hematocrit is reversibly bound to red blood cell hemoglobin, the distribution of oxygen within the microcirculation can be determined from measurements of hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in vessels of the network. Photometric methods that rely on light absorption and scattering properties of blood are described. Criteria for selecting the wavelengths needed to analyze hemoglobin in the microcirculation are specified. Two theoretical descriptions of light absorption and scattering, multiple scattering theory and photon diffusion theory, are applied to the problem. Practical approaches to the determination of hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in the microcirculation follow from these theoretical formulations. Technical aspects of microscope photometry including light sources, microscopy, and detection systems are described with special emphasis on the problem of glare. The importance of in vitro as well as in vivo calibrations is stressed, and several recent applications of a working system are discussed. Current problems as well as future developments of this methodology are delineated as a guide to future work in this area.
- Anderson, N.M. and P. Sekelj. Light-absorbing and scattering properties of nonhaemolysed blood.Phys. Med. Biol. 12:173–184, 1967. CrossRef
- Baker, M. and H. Wayland. On-line volume flow rate and velocity profile measurement for blood in microvessels.Microvasc. Res. 7:131–143, 1974. CrossRef
- Barer, R. Spectrophotometry of clarified cell suspensions.Science 121:709–715, 1955. CrossRef
- Cohen, A. and R.L. Longini. Theoretical determination of the blood's relative oxygen saturationin vivo.Med. Biol. Eng. 9:61–69, 1971. CrossRef
- Duling, B.R. and R.M. Berne. Oxygen and the local regulation of blood flow: possible significance of longitudinal gradients in arterial blood oxygen tension.Cir. Res. 28 & 29 (Suppl. I), I-65–I-69, 1971.
- Duling, B.R., D.N. Damon, S.R. Donaldson, and R.N. Pittman. A computerized system for densitometric analysis of the microcirculation.J. Appl. Physiol. 55:642–651, 1983.
- Duysens, L.N.M. The lattening of the absorption spectrum of suspensions, as compared to that of solutions.Biochem. Biophys. Acta 19:1–12, 1956. CrossRef
- Ellsworth, M.L. and R.N. Pittman. Intraluminal distribution of hematocrit and red blood cell velocity in the hamster retractor muscle.Microvasc. Res. 27:241, 1984 (abstract).
- Ellsworth, M.L. and R.N. Pittman. Intraluminal gradients in microvascular oxyhemoglobin saturation in the hamster retractor muscle.Int. J. Microcirc: Clin Exp. 3:371, 1984 (abstract).
- Janssen, F.J. A study of the absorption and scattering factors of light in whole blood.Med. Biol. Eng. 10:231–240, 1972. CrossRef
- Kanzow, G., A.R. Pries, and P. Gaehtgens. Analysis of the hematocrit distribution in the mesenteric microcirculation.Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 1:67–79, 1982.
- Klose, H.J., E. Volger, H. Brechtelsbauer, L. Heinich, and H. Schmid-Schonbein. Microrheology and light transmission of blood: I. The photometric effects of red cell aggregation and red cell orientation.Pflugers Arch. 333:126–139, 1972. CrossRef
- Kubelka, P. New contributions to the optics of intensely light-scattering materials. Part I.J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38:448–457, 1948.
- Lipowsky, H.H., S. Usami, and S. Chien.In vivo measurements of “apparent viscosity” and microvessel hematocrit in the mesentery of the cat.Microvasc. Res. 19:297–319, 1980. CrossRef
- Lipowsky, H.H., S. Usami, S. Chien, and R.N. Pittman. Hematocrit determination in small bore tubes by differential spectrophotometry.Microvasc. Res. 24:42–55, 1982. CrossRef
- Loewinger, E., A. Gordon, A. Weinreb, and J. Gross. Analysis of a micromethod for transmission oximetry of whole blood.J. Appl. Physiol. 19:1179–1184, 1964.
- Pardue, H.L., T.E. Hewitt, and M.J. Milano. Photometric errors in equilibrium and kinetic analyses based on absorption spectroscopy.Clin. Chem. 20:1028–1042, 1974.
- Piller, H.Microscope Photometry. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1977.
- Pittman, R.N. Relation between dual sensor centerline velocity and mean velocity in tubes of circular and elliptic cross section.Microvasc. Res. 27:266, 1984 (abstract).
- Pittman, R.N. and B.R. Duling. A new method for the measurement of percent oxyhemoglobin.J. Appl. Physiol. 38:315–320, 1975.
- Pittman, R.N. and B.R. Duling. Measurement of percent oxyhemoglobin in the microvasculature.J. Appl. Physiol. 38:321–327, 1975.
- Pittman, R.N. and B.R. Duling. Effects of altered carbon dioxide tension on hemoglobin oxygenation in hamster cheek pouch.Microvasc. Res. 13:211–224, 1977. CrossRef
- Pries, A.R., G. Kanzow, and P. Gaehtgens. Microphotometric determination of hematocrit in small vessels.Am. J. Physiol. 245:H167-H177, 1983.
- Reynolds, L., C. Johnson, and A. Ishimaru. Diffuse reflectance from a limited blood medium: applications to the modeling of fiber optic catheters.Appl. Opt. 15:2059–2067, 1976.
- Sarelius, I.H. and B.R. Duling. Direct measurement of microvessel hematocrit, red cell flux, velocity and transit time.Am. J. Physiol. 243:H1018-H1026, 1982.
- Swain, D.P. and R.N. Pittman. Oxygen mass balance in arterioles of hamster retractor muscle.Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp. 3:379, 1984 (abstract).
- Takatani, S. and M.D. Graham. Theoretical analysis of diffuse reflectance from a two-layer tissue model.IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 26:656–664, 1979. CrossRef
- Twersky, V. Absorption and multiple scattering by biological suspensions.J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60:1084–1093, 1970. CrossRef
- Van Assendelft, O.W.Spectrophotometry of Haemoglobin Derivatives. Assen, The Netherlands: Charles C. Thomas, 1970.
- Wodick, R. and D.W. Lubbers. A new method for determining the degree of oxygenation of hemoglobin spectra of inhomogeneous light paths, explained with the analysis of spectra of the human skin.Pflugers Arch. 342:41–60, 1973. CrossRef
- In vivo photometric analysis of hemoglobin
Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Volume 14, Issue 2 , pp 119-137
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Physiology and Biophysics Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, MCV Station, Box 551, 23298, Richmond, VA