Degumming, refining and bleaching soybean oil
- L. H. Wiedermann
- … show all 1 hide
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
This subject deals with the removal of the fat-soluble impurities from crude soybean oil. These impurities may be present in true solution or in a colloidal state; their effective removal is necessary to achieve quality standards for end-use products. The processing step options for the removal of these impurities in any given situation are easily defined; the conditions and practices used, however, are the primary concern of this paper. International trading of soybean oil mandates the degumming step. The increased use of import/export soybean oil increases the importance of this processing practice. Pretreatment and effective contact time are the critical issues. Refining, as a specific process, deals primarily with free fatty acid removal, with or without simultaneous degumming as a single-step operation. State-of-the-art wet, chemical refining practices are described, and the current limitations and future opportunities for the physical refining of soybean oil are discussed. The importance of the bleaching step cannot be overstated and it should be noted that color reduction is only coincidentally achieved. The primary function of the bleaching process is to remove oxidative breakdown products, and the degree or level of treatment should be consistent with that objective. Underbleaching and thermal decolorization (deodorization) of soybean oil are misguided practices. Once “cleaned-up” through adequate bleaching, an oil should be guarded against thermal/oxidative abuse.
- Sullivan, F.E., JAOCS 45:5164A (1968).
- Carr, R.A., Ibid. 53:347 (1976).
- Braae, B., Ibid. 53:353 (1976).
- Carr, R.A., Ibid. 55:765 (1978).
- Andersen, A.J.C., “Refining of Oils and Fats for Edible Purposes,” Pergamon Press, 1962.
- “Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products,” Third Edition, edited by D. Swern, Interscience Publishers, 1964, Chapter 16, p. 719.
- “Handbook of Soy Oil Processing and Utilization,” edited by D.R. Erickson, E.H. Pryde, O.L. Brekke, T.A. Mounts and R.A. Falb, published jointly by American Soybean Association, St. Louis, MO, and American Oil Chemists’ Society Champaign, IL, 1980, p. 14.
- “Official and Tentative Methods of the American Oil Chemists’ Society,” Third Edition, AOCS, Champaign, IL, 1975, Method Cc 13c-50.
- Letan, A., and A. Yaron, JAOCS 49:702 (1972).
- Evans, C.D., G.R. List, R.E. Beal and L.T. Black, Ibid. 51:444 (1974).
- Hvolby, A., Ibid. 48:503 (1971). CrossRef
- List, G.R., G.F. Spencer and W.H. Hunt, Ibid. 56:706 (1979).
- Gustafson, E.H., Ibid. 55:751 (1978).
- Robertson, J.A., Ibid. 50:443 (1973).
- List, G.R., C.D. Evans, K. Warner, R.F. Beal, W.F. Kwolek, L.T. Black and K.J. Moulton, Ibid. 54:8 (1977).
- Velasco, J., and A.A. Abdul-Baki, Ibid. 56:970 (1979).
- Mounts, T.L., G.R. List and A.J. Heakin, Ibid. 56:883 (1979).
- Chapman, G.W., Jr., and J.A. Robertson, Ibid. 54:195 (1977).
- Becker, W., Ibid. 55:754 (1978).
- Sullivan, F.E., Ibid. 53:358 (1976).
- Gutfinger, T., Ibid. 55:856 (1978).
- List, G.R., T.L. Mounts, K. Warner, and A.J. Heakin, Ibid. 55:277 (1978).
- List, G.R., T.L. Mounts and A.J. Heakin, Ibid. 55:280 (1978).
- Crossley, A., A.C. Davies and J.H. Pierce, Ibid. 39:165 (1962).
- Mag, T.K., Ibid. 50:251 (1973).
- Van Nieuwehuyzen, W., Ibid. 53:424 (1976).
- British Patent 1,001,159 (1965).
- Braae, B., U. Brimberg and M. Nyman, JAOCS 34:293 (1957).
- Klein, K., and L.S. Crauer, Ibid. 51:368 (1974).
- Crauer, L.S., and F.E. Sullivan, Ibid. 38:172 (1961).
- “Digital Refining Loss Monitor,” Elliott Automation Co., Cincinnati, OH.
- List, G.R., C.D. Evans, L.T. Black and T.L. Mounts, JAOCS 55:275 (1978).
- Ohlson, J.S.R., Ibid. 53:299 (1976).
- Beal, R.E., E.B. Lancaster and O.L. Brekke, Ibid. 33:619 (1956).
- Ohlson, R., and S. Svensson, Ibid. 53:8 (1976).
- Braae, B., Chem. Ind. 1958: 1152.
- Khoo, L.E., F. Morsingh and K.Y. Liew, JAOCS 56:672 (1979).
- Ney, K.H., Fette Seifen Anstrichm. 66:512 (1964). CrossRef
- Pardun, H., et al. Ibid. 70:531 (1978). CrossRef
- Kogler, H.P., Ibid. 65:834 (1963). CrossRef
- Richardson, L.L., JAOCS 55:777 (1978).
- Rich, A.D., Ibid. 44:298A (1967).
- Rich, A.D., Ibid. 37:305 (1960).
- Hasnuddin Siddiqui, M.K., Ibid. 45:885 (1968). CrossRef
- Rich, A.D., Ibid. 41:315 (1964).
- Burkhalter, J.P., Ibid. 53:332 (1976).
- Thomas, R., and J. Ridlehuber, Ibid. 45:254A (1968).
- Bahret, E., “Developments to Date in Soybean Oil Miscella Refining,” short course for oil mill operators, Texas A&M University, April 1967.
- Hoffmann, Y., JAOCS 50:260A (1973).
- Bulletin 19–23, Pittsburgh Activated Carbon, Div. of Calgon Corp. Pittsburgh, PA.
- Degumming, refining and bleaching soybean oil
Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society
Volume 58, Issue 3 , pp 159-166
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- L. H. Wiedermann (1)
- Author Affiliations
- 1. 1828 Lincoln St., 60018, Des Plaines, IL