Czechoslovak Journal of Physics

, Volume 46, Supplement 6, pp 3077–3088

Bose-Einstein condensates—a new form of quantum matter

  • N. J. van Druten
  • C. G. Townsend
  • M. R. Andrews
  • D. S. Durfce
  • D. M. Kurn
  • M. -O. Mewes
  • W. Ketterle
Plenary and Invited Papers Quantum Fluids and Solids

DOI: 10.1007/BF02548113

Cite this article as:
van Druten, N.J., Townsend, C.G., Andrews, M.R. et al. Czech J Phys (1996) 46(Suppl 6): 3077. doi:10.1007/BF02548113

Abstract

We review the recent achievements in observing Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in magnetically-trapped gases, and summarize our own studies of BEC in sodium. Thermal sodium atoms were optically trapped and cooled and then transferred to a cloverleaf magnetic trap. Radio-frequency induced evaporation increased the phase-space density by six orders of magnitude and condensates with up to ten million atoms were observed. Basic properties of the condensate such as condensate fraction and mean-field energy were found to be in agreement with theory. “Dark-ground” imaging has been used to observe the condensate directly and nondestructively. We have also investigated the low frequency oscillation modes of a condensate, and taken the first steps towards an “atom laser” by demonstrating an rf output coupler for a Bose condensate.

Copyright information

© Institute of Physics, Acad. Sci. CR 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. J. van Druten
    • 2
  • C. G. Townsend
    • 1
  • M. R. Andrews
    • 1
  • D. S. Durfce
    • 1
  • D. M. Kurn
    • 1
  • M. -O. Mewes
    • 1
  • W. Ketterle
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Laboratory of Electronics and Department of PhysicsMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Huygens LaboraoryLeiden UniversityLeidenThe Netherlands