A preliminary study of vocal communication in wild long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). I. Vocal repertoire and call emission
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- Palombit, R.A. International Journal of Primatology (1992) 13: 143. doi:10.1007/BF02547839
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Vocal communication in wild long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) is described in terms of (1) a preliminary vocal repertoire and the situations in which calls occur in the natural habitat of this species and (2) quantitative measurement of the natural occurrence of calls in the field. Although a number of calls are relatively discrete (e.g., a male loud call), gradation is pronounced for both wide-spectrum (“harsh”) and narrow-spectrum (“clear”) vocal signals. Thirteen general types of harsh calls are identified provisionally as elements of the vocal repertoire. The exact number of discrete clear calls contributing to the vocal repertoire could not be ascertained precisely, but these calls were classified operationally into six broadly acoustically different classes in order to measure natural vocal behavior. Vocalizations tended to occur in temporal “clusters” during sample, periods. Narrow-band clear or “coo” calls were more frequently performed by macaques than wide-band harsh calls. The possible functional implications of the correlated occurrence of multiple vocal signals are discussed.