Soy flour in European-type bread
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- Jakubczyk, T. & Haberowa, H. J Am Oil Chem Soc (1974) 51: 120A. doi:10.1007/BF02542108
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Effect of soy flour, soy protein concentrate, and isolate on dough and loaf properties of breads produced from flour, yeast, salt, and water with no shortening or added improvers was investigated. Wheat flour, rye flour, and mixtures of the two were included in the studies. Three wheat flours, varying in baking quality and extraction, ash content 0.65 and 0.80%, were used; 1.5, 3, and 5% soy products, flour basis, were added. Water absorption increased 3.8–4.7% at the 3% soy level and 6.1–7.3% at the 5% level of soy product addition. Dough development time and stability were increased and dough softening reduced. Dough gassing power increased ca. 7–25%. By using a shorter proofing time, more intensive mixing, and the sponge dough process, loaves only slightly smaller in volume than the control were obtained at the 3% soy level. Panel evaluations scored bread highest with 1.5 or 3% soy flour and that with 3 or 5% soy protein concentrate as lowest, but acceptable. Use of 2% lard as shortening, or 2% lard plus emulsifier, produced soy breads of excellent quality and ca. 25% higher loaf volume than controls.